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1. Learning Outcomes: Objectives All: Can describe what is memory Most: Can explain how the models work Some: Can discuss the strengths and limitation of a number of…
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  • 1. Learning Outcomes: Objectives All: Can describe what is memory Most: Can explain how the models work Some: Can discuss the strengths and limitation of a number of memory models.Collect Homework (Tuesday/Thursday) Thursday:2. Describe the Multi-store model of memory (5)Homework for (Tuesday/Thursday) Tuesday after the half term:1. Re-do the test with an open book and the mark scheme and get 100%.
  • 2. Critical thinkingWith your Psychologist hat on how would you describe how memory works?Things to think about:• What about short term memory• storage• Long term memory• Forgetting• Retrieval• Encoding
  • 3. Define these terms If you need, use your book to help you book.1. short term memory2. storage3. Long term memory4. Forgetting5. Retrieval6. Encoding7. Free recall8. Cued recall9. Recognition10. Echoic11. Haptic12. Iconic
  • 4. Define these terms match up1. short term memory 1. Loosing a piece of memory2. storage 2. Getting a piece of memory out of long term memory3. Long term memory 3. Sorting information into categories before storing in memory4. Forgetting 4. Memory that is remembered for a short period of time.5. Retrieval 5. Memory saved6. Encoding 6. Memory saved for years7. Free recall 7. Memory of sound8. Cued recall 8. Memory of texture or temperature9. Recognition 9. visual memory 10. Remembering something with no prompts10. Echoic 11. Remembering something with a clue to help you11. Haptic 12. You didn’t recall it your self, but you recognise that you12. Iconic know it.
  • 5. Define these terms If you need, use your book to help you book.1. short term memory 1. Memory that is remembered for a short period of time.2. storage 2. Memory saved3. Long term memory 3. Memory saved for years 4. Loosing a piece of memory4. Forgetting 5. Getting a piece of memory out of long term memory5. Retrieval 6. Sorting information into categories before storing in6. Encoding memory7. Free recall 7. Remembering something with no prompts8. Cued recall 8. Remembering something with a clue to help you9. Recognition 9. You didn’t recall it your self, but you recognise that you know it.10. Echoic 10. Memory of sound11. Haptic 11. Memory of texture or temperature12. Iconic 12. visual memory
  • 6. A model of working memoryModels are attempts to describe complex phenomena. They began in 1960 inspired by computer science.The models are based on two assumptions:• Memory consists of a number of separate stores• The memory processes are sequential.The multi store model by Atkinson and Shiffrin (‘86).
  • 7. Multi Store Model - Atkinson and Shiffrin (‘86).Echoic - Memory of soundHaptic - Memory of texture or temperatureIconic - visual memory
  • 8. multi store model - Atkinson and Shiffrin (‘86).Label the following:2.Sensory input3.Rehearsal loop4.Sensory memory5.Retrieval6.Consolidation7.Shot-term memory8.Long-term memory9.attention
  • 9. Multi-store model of memory Atkinson and Shiffrin (‘86).Memory stores (LTM, STM,WM) work with processes such as:• coding,• attention• RehearsalTask - State why each of these are important in memory.
  • 10. Memory stores/capacityWhat do you think the capacity (amount and for how long) of these memory stores is?Sensory memory- The senses bring in information for a few seconds, then pass it on to STM.Short term memory (STM)- 7 items, for 6-12 seconds (Miller (’56) magic number 7)Long term memory (LTM)- Psychologist do not know how much can be stored here. Suggested - unlimited- Also material is not replicas of events.- Where there are gaps, schemas are use to fill them.Task – now find out about their duration and coding
  • 11. Multi-store model of memory Sensory memory Short-term Long-term memory memoryCapacity (amount, All sensory 7 +/- 2 unlimitedwhat is it?) experiencesDuration (time)Coding (how it isorganised)
  • 12. Multi-store model of memory Sensory Short-term Long-term memory memory memoryCapacity All sensory 7 +/- 2 unlimited(amount, experienceswhat)Duration ¼ second –(time) visual 18-30 seconds unlimited 4 seconds - auditoryCoding Sense-specific Phonological Semantic(how it is coding (auditory/soun (meaning)organised) d based)
  • 13. Chunking for STM (Miller ‘56) to extend memory• 177352887• 177 352 887Using the text book/handout pg 170, 214 summaries:- Millers chunking.
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