Slides

PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

Description
1. Planning Research: 2 Formulating Hypotheses 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Be able to differentiate between an aim and hypothesis.…
Categories
Published
of 9
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  • 1. Planning Research: 2 Formulating Hypotheses
  • 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Be able to differentiate between an aim and hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Know how aims and hypotheses are formulated </li></ul>
  • 3. Key Terms <ul><li>Hypothesis: clear testable statement that makes a prediction about what will happen in an experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Operationalise: to offer a clear set of criteria to describe how something will be set up or measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Variables: factors that may change or vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Hypothesis: a hypothesis that predicts a difference in the measured variable (change in the DV due to the IV) or correlation between variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Null Hypothesis: a hypothesis that predicts no difference in a variable or no correlation between variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation: a relationship between two variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental hypothesis: a hypothesis used only in experiments which predicts a difference and has an IV and DV. </li></ul>
  • 4. Formulating Hypotheses <ul><li>After the aim of the research, which is based on theory, is decided by the researcher a hypothesis needs to be generated. An aim allows predictions to be made but a hypothesis need to make a very precise prediction, known as a research hypothesis (H 1 ). </li></ul><ul><li>H 1 : participants who score above average on a questionnaire measuring confidence are significantly less likely to follow an unreasonable request made by a stranger in a uniform compared to participants who score below average. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the worksheet, decide whether each statement is an aim/hypothesis. </li></ul>
  • 5. Hypothesis <ul><li>A clear testable statement made at the beginning of an investigation, that aims to predict or explain events. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more specific than the aim of the experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes sense of findings: difference/correlation. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a hypothesis for Stroop’s experiment. </li></ul>
  • 6. Stroop’s Hypothesis <ul><li>Participants take significantly longer to state the colour of a word when it is written in a conflicting colour than when the word and the colour of the ink that it is written in are the same. </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Performance speeds are significantly different , when people state the colour of a word when it is written in a conflicting colour than when the word and the colour of the ink that it is written in are the same. </li></ul>
  • 7. Testing a hypothesis <ul><li>The psychologist then tests their hypothesis by collecting data by designing and carrying out an investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Research decision based on findings: </li></ul><ul><li>If the results suggest that the prediction was correct, then the research hypothesis is retained. </li></ul><ul><li>If the results suggest that the prediction was wrong, then the research hypothesis is rejected. </li></ul>
  • 8. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>As it is possible that a psychologist may have to reject their H 1 , they will also need to formulate a null hypothesis (H 0 ), which predicts no difference or correlation. </li></ul><ul><li>H 0: There is no significant difference in the number of times participants follow an unreasonable request from a stranger in uniform, whether they score above or below average on a questionnaire measuring confidence. Any differences will be due to chance factors. </li></ul><ul><li>The H 1 is rejected and the H 0 is retained. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Null Hypothesis worksheet, write out a H 0 hypothesis for each H 1 . </li></ul>
  • 9. Summary <ul><li>Research questions arise from observations and psychologists use research to try to answer them. </li></ul><ul><li>Research starts with an aim, which is a broad statement about what is being investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>Research uses a H 1 , which predicts a difference or correlation and will be retained if evidence supports it. If the H 1 is reject then the H 0 is retained instead as this predicts no difference or correlation. </li></ul>
  • We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks