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1. BLOCKBUSTER – MEMORY AND METHODS<br /><ul><li>LETTERSANSWERSQUESTIONSAAnxiety Age differencesAcoustic Articulatory loopAn unpleasant emotional…
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  • 1. BLOCKBUSTER – MEMORY AND METHODS<br /><ul><li>LETTERSANSWERSQUESTIONSAAnxiety Age differencesAcoustic Articulatory loopAn unpleasant emotional state where we fear something bad is about to happen. People become physiologically aroused in this state and it can affect EWT.Findings from older and younger people on EWT.The type of encoding preferred in STM.A component of the phonological loop known as the ‘inner voice’.BBaddeley Bahrick et al BPSBriefing Who, in 1966, explored the effects of acoustic and semantic encoding in STM and LTM?Who established the existence of very long-term memory using photographs from a high-school year-book.This society publishes a Code of Ethics that all psychologists should follow.The act of explaining all relevant details to participants before a study so they can provide fully informed consent.CCapacityChunking Central executiveCognitive interviewA measure of how much can be held in memory.Enhancing the capacity of STM by grouping sets of digits or letters into meaningful units.An area l that monitors and coordinates all other mental functions in the working memory model.A police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which encourages them to recreate the original context in order to increase the accessibility of stored information.DDurationDifferential experience hypothesisDisplacement Dependent VariableHow long a memory lasts before it is no longer available.This suggests that the more contact we have with members of a particular age, or ethnic group, the better our memory would be for such individuals.One way information can be lost form STM.The variable measured by the researcher.EEncoding Episodic bufferEye-witness testimonyEcological validityThe way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory.This receives input from many sources, temporarily stores this information, and then integrates it to construct a mental event of what is being experienced right now.The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator.The extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other settings.FField experimentFrequency polygonFace validityFree recallA method where the IV is manipulated by the researcher in the natural environment, but there is no random allocation of the participants to the conditions of the study.A line graph.A basic method of assessing validity which involves an ‘eyeball test’.A way of testing memory where participants can recall items form a list in any order.GGeiselman Graph Guideline Glanzer He developed the cognitive interview technique in (1985).A way of visually displaying the results of data.An ethical __________ tells the researcher what they should do to conduct research that is ethically acceptable.G_________ and Cunitz (1966) found evidence for separate STM and LTM stores with the primacy and recency effect.HHierarchiesHypothesis Histogram Harm Bower (1969) used these to show how organization could aid recall.A clear, testable statement.A graph consisting of vertical bars of equal width, which represent the frequencies of the variable placed on the x-axis.Psychologists have a responsibility to protect participants from this.IImagery Independent VariableIndependent groups designInterviews This uses the visual sense as a mnemonic to aid recall.The variable which is manipulated by the researcher.This design is where different participants are used in each condition of the study.A method which involves researchers asking questions in a face-to-face way.JKLLong-term memoryLeading questionLoftus Loci Memory for evens that have happened in the past, anywhere from 2 minutes to 100 years.A question that, either by its form or content, suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads him to the desired answer.Elizabeth L________ pioneered research into EWT.In this mnemonic you identify a familiar route and place items to remember along the route.MMnemonic Memory Multi-store modelMisleading informationAny structured technique used to help people recall information.The encoding and storage of information that is later retrieved.A model in which memory is characterized as a flow of information through a system.This uses a form of words to imply wrongly that something has happened so that a witness is enticed to give inaccurate testimony.NNon-directional hypothesisNatural experimentNon-participant observationNegative correlationA type of hypothesis which states there will be a difference in the two conditions, but not which way the difference will go.This method takes place in the natural environment, the independent variable is naturally occurring and there is no random allocation of participants to conditions.This observational design is based on looking at the group or situation from the ‘outside’.This relationship occurs when as one variable increases the other decreases.OOperationalisation Overt Observer biasOpen Being able to define variables simply and easily in order to manipulate them and measure them.This type of observation is when the participants are aware they are being observed.This happens when the researcher makes their own particular interpretation of the behaviour they see.This type of question allows the respondent to reply in whatever way they wish. It produces qualitative data.PPhonological loopPerceptual learning hypothesisPhonological storePeterson and PetersonThis encodes speech in sounds in working memory, typically involving maintenance rehearsal.This suggests that individuals, because they encounter members of their own age group more regularly, become more expert at processing those faces.A component of working memory known as the inner ear.This husband and wife team, IN 1959, tested how long STM lasts when rehearsal is prevented.QQualitative Quantitative Questionnaires Quasi experimentThis type of data provides non-numerical data, based on feelings and opinions. It provides rich, detailed information.This type of data involves numerical analysis, which aims to measure something.Surveys typically involve these to collect the data they need.An experiment that takes place in a field setting but the IV is already set.RRetrieval Retrieval cueRange Random The accessing of information held in memory.A clue to help recall stored information from LTM.A measure of dispersion which is calculated by taking the difference between the lowest and highest score. A sampling method in which every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected.SShort-term memorySensory storeSemantic Serial position curveMemory for immediate events, which is limited in duration and capacity.Information from the senses enters this for less than half a second.The type of encoding preferred in LTM.The primacy and recency effect results in this shape on a graph.TUVVisuo-spatial scratchpadVisual Volunteer Validity This encodes visual information in terms of separate objects as well as the arrangement of these objects in one’s visual field.A type of encoding where you think of an image you can see.A sample where the participants self-select themselves to take part.Actually measuring something we claim to be measuring.WWorking memory modelWeapon focusWithdrawal Word-length effectThis replaces the idea of a unitary STM with a multi-component, flexible system concerned with active processing.When eye-witnesses look at either a gun or a knife and so are not able to identify who was holding it.Participants should be allowed to leave or W____________ from a study at any time.When short words are recalled better than long words.XYYerkes Dodson lawYuille Y-axisYes A curvilinear relationship between moderate arousal and performance.Who, with Cutshall, provided evidence for the accuracy of testimony regarding real-life events, in their study involving a gunshop owner shooting a thief. The axis on which the independent variable is displayed.If you agreed with a question you would give this closed answer.Z
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