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1. Look at the descriptions given below of studies- you need GCSE Induction material to decide if these studies are real or made up and justify your answers. 1. In a busy…
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  • 1. Look at the descriptions given below of studies- you need GCSE Induction material to decide if these studies are real or made up and justify your answers. 1. In a busy underground train station, an experimenter pretends to collapse, bleeding from the mouth. Members of the public who see the event are secretly observed by another experimenter to see what kind of person helps and how long they take to help. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons: 2. An experimenter in a pick-up truck, with a rifle visible in the back, and a sticker on the bumper saying 'VENGEANCE', stops at red lights. The experimenter does not move when the lights turn green thus blocking the traffic. The experimenter wants to find out if a display of aggressive items such as the gun will put people off honking their horn. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons: 3. Baby rhesus monkeys are reared in complete isolation except for two surrogate 'mothers' one a wire structure with a plastic monkey face, and the other a wire structure with a plastic monkey face but covered with soft material. The wire mother provides food through fake nipples. The experimenter then frightens the baby monkeys to find out which mother they will go to for comfort – the wire one that provides food or the cuddly one that gives no food. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons: 4. Rats were placed in a small box divided into cells where they could each live comfortably. They were given enough food and water to live well. The researchers watched to see what would happen as the rats began to breed freely and the box became crowded. Some of the rats became cannibalistic or homosexual. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons: 5. Participants are presented with 2,000 sheets of random numbers, asked to add up to 224 pairs of numbers on each sheet, then tear the sheet into 32 pieces before going on to the next. After five hours of this clearly useless task, some of the subjects are still going and have to be stopped by the experimenter. The experimenter wants to find out whether people will do things for a psychological researcher that they would not do for other ‘normal’ people. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons:
  • 2. 6. Sleeping participants are woken up every time they start to dream (i.e. several times per night) for 5 nights in a row. Participants become increasingly paranoid during the daytime. The experimenter wants to find out the effect lack of dream – sleep has on people. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons: 7. Ammonia is used to punish a deaf-blind five-year-old boy when he starts to self-harm. The experimenter wants to find out what effect punishment has on self-injurious behaviour. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons: 8 Participants are either given name badges to wear, or they are given a Ku Klux Klan style hood with holes cut for eyes. They are then given the opportunity to “condition” (train) confederates to make them ‘nicer’. They are told this to do this by giving them electric shocks whenever they act in what they consider to be a bad way (however, no real electric shocks are given). An investigation into the effect loss of identity (through wearing a uniform hood) has on willingness to hurt others. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons: 8. Electric shocks are given to homosexual men as they view photographs of clothed and naked men. The experimenter wants to find out if punishment can cure homosexuality. Real or Not? Yes No Reasons: 9. A hidden observer in a men's toilet records the time taken before participants begin to urinate and the time they take urinating. Another experimenter either stands at the next urinal to the participant or one urinal away. The arousal (measured in terms of ability to urinate). Real or Not? Yes No Reasons:
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