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1. Date Study Approach Section Question Jan 2009 B-C Cog A The study by Baron-Cohen, Jolliffe, Mortimore and Robertson on autism involved three groups of participants.…
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  • 1. Date Study Approach Section Question Jan 2009 B-C Cog A The study by Baron-Cohen, Jolliffe, Mortimore and Robertson on autism involved three groups of participants. Describe two of these groups.[4] Jan 2009 L+P Cog A a. Identify the independent variable (IV) in the first experiment conducted by Loftus and Palmer on eye witness testimony. [2] b. Outline how the independent variable (IV) was manipulated in this experiment [2] Jan 2009 S-R Cog A From the study by Savage-Rumbaugh, identify two pieces of evidence that suggest pygmy chimpanzees have a greater aptitude for symbol acquisition than common chimpanzees.[4] May 2009 B-C Cog A From the study by Baron-Cohen et al on Autism in adults; a. Identify one difference between the performance of the autistic adults and the Tourettes syndrome adults. (2) b. Outline what this study tells us about advanced theory of mind. (2) May 2009 L+P Cog A From the study by Loftus and Palmer on eye witness testimony, outline two ways in which the procedure was standardised. (4) May 2009 S-R Cog A From the study by Savage-Rumbaugh; a. Identify one reason why Kanzi was taught symbol acquisition as a means of communication. (2) b. Outline one way in which the researchers recorded Kanzi’s symbol acquisition. (2) Jan 2010 B-C Cog A In the study by Baron-Cohen et al the autistic and Aspergers syndrome participants were found to be unimpaired on two control tasks. Describe these two control tasks. (4) Jan 2010 L+P Cog A The Loftus and Palmer study on eye witness testimony used the experimental method. Describe one strength and one weakness of the experimental method used in this study. (4) Jan 2010 S-R Cog A Savage-Rumbaugh studied symbol acquisition by pygmy chimpanzees. a. Identify 2 symbols Kanzi identified correctly using the lexigram keyboard before any training. (2) b. Explain why Kanzi was able to identify these symbols without any training. (2) Jan 2009 B, R+R Dev A In the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross, all the participants were taken individually into a second room and subjected to mild aggression arousal a. Describe how children’s aggression was aroused in this room[2] b. Explain why the researcher felt this way was necessary (2) Jan 2009 Freud Dev A In this study by Freud, Little Hans is referred to as a ‘little Oedipus’ a. Identify two features of the Oedipus Complex[2] b. Outline one piece of evidence from the study which supports the suggestion that Hans was a ‘little Oedipus’ (2) Jan 2009 S+B Dev A The table below represents the mean number of errors made in the three conditions manipulated by Samuel and Bryant to test children’s ability to conserve. Results by mean number of errors
  • 2. Date Study Approach Section Question Standard One-question Fixed array 5-year old 8.5 7.3 8.5 6-year old 5.7 4.3 6.4 7-year old 3.2 2.5 4.8 8-year old 1.6 1.3 3.3 a. Outline one conclusion that can be drawn from this table.[2] b. Explain the purpose of the ‘one-question’ group.[2] May 2009 B, R+R Dev A Bandura Ross and Ross in their study of aggression used a matched pairs design. a. How were the children matched in this study? (2) b. Outline why the children were matched in this study. (2) May 2009 Freud Dev A From Freud’s study of little Hans;
  • 3. Date Study Approach Section Question a. Briefly describe one of little Hans’ dreams or fantasies. (2) b. Outline Freud’s explanation of this dream or fantasy. (2) May 2009 S+B Dev A From the study by Samuel and Bryant, in the one question condition children were asked a question about number mass or volume only after they had seen the transformation. a. Identify the two other conditions in this experiment. (2) b. In addition to these conditions, two other factors affected children’s ability to conserve. Identify both of these factors. (2) Jan 2010 B, R+R Dev A Outline two findings from the study of aggression by Bandura Ross and Ross. (4) Jan 2010 Freud Dev A From Freud’s study of little Hans, outline one strength and one weakness of the way in which the data was gathered. (4) Jan 2010 S+B Dev A Describe two of the conservation tasks the children were asked to perform in the Samuel and Bryant study. (4) Jan 2009 Griffiths ID A The study by Griffiths investigated cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling (a) Identify two pieces of quantitative data gathered in this study[2] (b) Outline one advantage of quantitative data used in this study[2] Jan 2009 Rosenhan ID A In Rosenhan’s study ‘On being sane in insane places’, health professionals in the fist experiment made a Type 2 error (a false positive) in their diagnosis of the pseudopatients (a) Describe the Type 2 error in this study[2] (b) Why does Rosenhan argue that it is worse to make a Type 2 error when diagnosing mental illness than physical illness? [2] Jan 2009 T+C ID A Thigpen and Cleckley investigated multiple personality disorder in one patient. Outline two limitations of the findings of this study[4] May 2009 Griffiths ID A Explain how Griffiths used the ‘quasi experimental’ method in his study into fruit machine gambling. (4) May 2009 Rosenhan ID A From the study by Rosenhan on being sane in insane places; a. Give one example of how the pseudopatients’ requests were dealt with by the staff. (2) b. Outline how the staff reactions affected the pseudopatients. (2) May 2009 T+C ID A a. Identify two psychological tests carried out on Eve White and Eve Black in Thigpen and Cleckley’s study of multiple personality disorder. (2) b. Outline the findings of one of these tests. (2) Jan 2010 Griffiths ID A In the study by Griffiths, each participant was given £3 to gamble on a fruit machine. a. Describe the gambling task each participant was then set. (2) b. Explain why all participants were asked to use the same fruit machine. (2) Jan 2010 Rosenhan ID A From Rosenhan’s study ‘On being sane in insane places,’ a. Identify 2 things the pseudopatients did that were labelled as abnormal by hospital staff. (2) b. Outline why these behaviours were labelled as abnormal. (2) Jan 2010 T+C ID A Describe 2 of the personalities in Thigpen and Cleckley’s study into multiple personality disorder. (4)
  • 4. Date Study Approach Section Question Jan 2009 D+K Phys A Outline two ways in which Dement and Kleitman’s laboratory experiment into sleep and dreaming can be said to be low in ecological validity[4] Jan 2009 Maguire Phys A The Maguire, et al study on taxi drivers used MRI scans (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) a. Explain what an MRI scan measured in this study[2] b. Outline one piece of evidence that suggests the brain of taxi-drivers are different from the brains of non-taxi drivers[2] Jan 2009 Sperry Phys A The study by Sperry investigated the psychological effects of the hemisphere deconnection in split brain patients (a) Describe how split brain patients responded to visual material presented to their right visual field (RVF) [2] (b) Outline one conclusion from this study [2] May 2009 D+K Phys A In Dement and Kleitman’s study on sleep and dreaming it is suggested that rapid eye movement only occurs during dreaming. Give one piece of evidence that supports this suggestion and one that challenges it. (4) May 2009 Maguire Phys A In the study of taxi drivers by Maguire et al; a. Describe two features of the sample. (2) b. Outline one limitation of this sample. (2) May 2009 Sperry Phys A From Sperry’s split brain study; a. Identify one difference between the split brain patients and normal people in their ability to identify objects by touch alone. (2) b. Outline one reason for this difference. (2) Jan 2010 D+K Phys A From Dement and Kleitman’s study into sleep and dreaming; a. Identify the two substances participants were instructed not to have on the day of the experiment. (2) b. Outline one problem with instructing participants not to have these substances. (2) Jan 2010 Maguire Phys A Maguire et al investigated structural changes in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. a. Identify the independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV) in this experiment. (2) b. Describe one effect the IV had on the DV. (2) Jan 2010 Sperry Phys A Sperry’s split brain study investigated the psychological effects of hemisphere deconnection. a. Give one reason why participants had previously undergone an operation to deconnect the two hemispheres of the brain. (2) b. Outline one problem with generalising from the sample used in this study. (2) Jan 2009 Milgram Soc A From Milgram’s study of obedience: (a) Describe the sample used[2] (b) Outline one limitation of this sample[2] Jan 2009 P,R,P Soc A Outline two ethical issues raised by Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin’s subway Samaritan study [4] Jan 2009 R+H Soc A Describe how the sample was recruited in Reicher and Haslam’s BBC prison study. [4]
  • 5. Date Study Approach Section Question May 2009 Milgram Soc A From Milgram’s study of obedience; a. Describe how the sample was obtained. (2) b. Outline one disadvantage of the way the sample was obtained. (2) May 2009 P R+P Soc A In the subway Samaritan study by Piliavin Rodin and Piliavin, some of the researchers acted as models. a. Identify one of the model conditions. (2) b. Outline one finding from the model conditions. (2) May 2009 R+H Soc A From Reicher and Haslam’s BBC prison study, outline two reasons why the prisoners were given uniforms. (4) Jan 2010 Milgram Soc A From Milgram’s study of obedience; a. Describe how obedience was measured. (2) b. Suggest one problem with measuring obedience in this way. (2) Jan 2010 P, R+P Soc A From the subway Samaritan study by Piliavin Rodin and Piliavin; a. Describe one quantitative measure recorded by the observers. (2) b. Outline the findings of one of the quantitative measures recorded. (2) Jan 2010 R+H Soc A Reicher and Haslam studied the behaviour of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison. a. Describe one way the researchers tried to ensure ethical guidelines were upheld. (2) b. Outline one reason why stress or psychological harm is an ethical concern in this study. (2) Jan 2009 S+B B Choose one of the core studies below Milgram Samuel and Bryant: Conservation B-C Milgram: Obedience Baron-Cohen, Jolliffe, Mortimer and Robertson: advanced test of theory of mind, autism in adults And answer the following questions: a. Briefly outline the previous research or event which was the stimulus for your chosen study [2] (b) Describe how the sample in your chosen study was selected and use one advantage of using this sample [6] (c) Explain why your chosen study can be considered a laboratory experiment[6] (d) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of conducting your chosen study in a laboratory[6] (e) Suggest how your chosen study could be improved [8] (f) Outline the implications of the improvements you have suggested for your chosen study (8)
  • 6. Date Study Approach Section Question May 2009 Rosenhan B Choose one of the core studies listed below B, R+R Rosenhan; on being sane in insane places P, R+P Bandura; transmission of aggression Piliavin Rodin and Piliavin; good Samaritanism And answer the following questions; a. What was the aim of your chosen study? (2) b. Describe the method in your chosen study and give one advantage of using this method. (6) c. Describe two ethical issues raised by your chosen study. (6) d. With reference to your chosen study, explain one reason why the researchers needed to break ethical guidelines, and one reason why they not have done so. (6) e. Suggest how your chosen study could be made more ethical. (8) f. Outline the practical implications of the ethical changes you have suggested for your chosen study. (8) Jan 2010 Griffiths B Choose one of the core studies below; D+K Griffiths; fruit machine gambling L+P Dement and Kleitman; Sleep and dreaming Loftus and Palmer; eyewitness testimony And answer the following questions; a. State one of the hypotheses investigated in your chosen study. (2) b. Describe the sample used and suggest one weakness of using this sample. (6) c. Outline two of the quantitative measures recorded in your chosen study. (6) d. With reference to your chosen study suggest one strength and one weakness of quantitative data. (8) e. Outline the results of your chosen study. (8) f. Suggest one change to the procedure of your chosen study and explain how this might affect the results. (8) May 2009 Cog C a. Outline one assumption of the cognitive approach[2] b. Describe how the cognitive approach could explain the inaccuracy of eye witness testimony. [4] c. Describe one similarity and one difference between any cognitive approach studies [6] d. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the cognitive approach using examples from any cognitive approach studies[12] Jan 2009 Dev C (a) Outline one assumption of the developmental approach[2] (b) Describe how the developmental approach could explain aggression[4] (c) Describe one similarity and one difference between any developmental approach studies [6] (d) Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the developmental approach using examples from any developmental approach studies[12] Jan 2010 ID C a. Outline one assumption of the individual differences approach. [2] b. Describe how the individual differences approach could explain multiple personality disorder. (4) c. Describe one similarity and one difference between any studies that take the individual differences approach.[6]
  • 7. Date Study Approach Section Question d. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the individual differences approach using examples from any studies that take this approach. [12] Jan 2009 Phys C (a) Outline one assumption of the physiological approach[2] (b) Describe how the physiological approach could explain structural changes in the brain[4] (c) Describe one similarity and one difference between any physiological approach studies[6] (d) Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the physiological approach using examples from any physiological studies[12] Jan 2010 PsychoD C a. Outline one assumption of the psychodynamic perspective. [2] b. Describe how the psychodynamic perspective could explain phobias. (4) c. Describe one similarity and one difference between any studies that could be viewed from the psychodynamic perspective.[6] d. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the psychodynamic perspective using examples from any studies that could be viewed from this perspective. [12] May 2009 Soc C a. Outline one assumption of the social approach[2] b. Describe how the social approach could explain helping behaviour. [4] c. Describe one similarity and one difference between any social approach studies [6] d. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the social approach using examples from any social approach studies[12]
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