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1. Langlois, Ritter, Roggman, and Vaughn (1991) Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces 2. Attractiveness Nature vs. Nurture…
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  • 1. Langlois, Ritter, Roggman, and Vaughn (1991) Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces
  • 2. Attractiveness Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Pretty is as pretty does. </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty is only skin deep. </li></ul><ul><li>Never judge a book by its cover. </li></ul>
  • 3. Attractiveness Nurture? <ul><li>Are preferences for attractiveness culturally transmitted ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthened necks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bound feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painted skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyed hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flattened or enlarged breasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Attractiveness Nurture?
  • 5. Attractiveness Nature? <ul><li>“Beautiful faces and bodies worldwide are generally ones that look youthful, healthy, symmetrical, &quot;average&quot; in the sense that we prefer features– noses, legs, physiques–  that are neither too large nor too small” David G. Myers in Psychology. </li></ul>
  • 6. Attractiveness Nature <ul><li>These images were created by morphing together the features of many women to come up with the &quot;average&quot; face. </li></ul>
  • 7. Study 1
  • 8. Study 1: Aim <ul><li>To replicate their previous results with adult female facial stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>To extend the results to male facial stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate whether the manner in which male and female faces are presented influences infant preferences </li></ul>
  • 9. Study 1: Sample <ul><li>60-6 month old infants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>53 of them were white </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Study 1: Method <ul><li>Laboratory experiment </li></ul><ul><li>IV? What was manipulated? </li></ul><ul><li>DV? What was measured? </li></ul>
  • 11. Study 1: Method <ul><li>Each infant saw color slides of 16 adult Caucasian women & 16 Caucasian adult men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of the slides of each sex depicted attractive faces, the other half unattractive faces </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Study 1: Method <ul><li>Operational definition of attractive : The slides’ faces were rated for attractiveness by at least 40 undergraduate men & women using a 5-point Likert-type scale (rating scale) </li></ul><ul><li>Final faces selected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expression, hair length, hair color were equally distributed across attractiveness conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All male faces clean-shaven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing cues masked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faces were posed with neutral expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  • 13. Study 1: Method <ul><li>Standard visual preference technique </li></ul><ul><li>Infant seated on parent's lap; parent wore occluded glasses. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>A light and a buzzing noise </li></ul><ul><li>A trial began when the infant first looked at one of the slides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the infant looked at the center of the screen, the next pair of slides was displayed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each trial lasted for 10 s. </li></ul><ul><li>Screen brightness consistent throughout </li></ul>
  • 14. Study 1: Method <ul><li>The stimuli were presented in two sets of 16 slides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each set divided into 8 trial blocks of 2 slides each </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control for infant side biases </li></ul><ul><li>Slides paired so that infants viewed only pairs of women or pairs of men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternating condition , the infants observed alternating pairs of males and females. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouped condition , infants saw all the women's slides together & all the men's slides together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infants given 5-10-min break after 8 trials to lessen fatigue </li></ul>
  • 15. Study 1: Method <ul><li>Order of set presentation, order of slide pair presentation within sets (within the constraints of the set), & order of slide pairing randomized across subjects so that a particular slide of an attractive face could be paired with any slide of an unattractive face of the same sex </li></ul>
  • 16. Study 1: Method <ul><li>Direction & duration of looks recorded on the keyboard of a laboratory computer that functioned as an event recorder </li></ul><ul><li>Using the televised image of the infant to observe visual fixation ensured that the experimenter could not see the displayed slides & was therefore blind to the attractiveness level of the slides the infant was observing </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability of the visual-fixation scoring obtained by having each experimenter score randomly selected videotaped sessions periodically throughout data collection </li></ul>
  • 17. Study 1: Results <ul><li>Infants looked longer at the attractive faces than the unattractive faces </li></ul><ul><li>Infant preferences for attractive faces were evident for both adult male & adult female faces </li></ul><ul><li>Condition of presentation was not significant </li></ul><ul><li>Boys looked longer at male faces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls also preferred same sex faces but the finding was not statistically significant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mother’s attractiveness did not make a difference (Why do this?) </li></ul>
  • 18. Study 2
  • 19. Study 2: Aim <ul><li>To extend the findings to non-white faces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infants were shown faces of Black adult women. The faces were rated for attractiveness by both Black and Caucasian adult judges. </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Study 2 <ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40-6 month old infants (36 white) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black adult female faces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest of procedure same as study 1 </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Study 2: Results <ul><li>Infants looked longer at the attractive faces than the unattractive faces </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s attractiveness did not make a difference </li></ul>
  • 22. Study 3
  • 23. Study 3 <ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To extend the findings to infant faces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39-6 month old infants (36 white) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 month old baby faces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest of procedure as in study 1 </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Study 3: Results <ul><li>Infants looked longer at the attractive faces than the unattractive faces </li></ul>
  • 25. Explanation <ul><li>“ Ethnically diverse faces possess both distinct and similar, perhaps even universal , structural features.” </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty is (in some part) nature NOT nurture </li></ul>
  • 26. Discussion <ul><li>Beautiful faces are prototypical: a n original form serving as a basis or standard for other forms </li></ul><ul><li>Why might prototypical faces be evolutionarily adaptive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals closer to the mean might be less likely to have genetic mutations ? </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Averageness <ul><li>An average face has mathematically average trait values for a population </li></ul><ul><li>Faces that are high in averageness are low in distinctiveness and are therefore prototypical </li></ul><ul><li>Several theorists have proposed that average traits reflect developmental stability </li></ul>
  • 28. Prototypical
  • 30. Vocabulary ALERT <ul><li>Cultural transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical significance </li></ul><ul><li>Likert-type scale </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype </li></ul>
  • 31. References <ul><li>Myers, David, & Reviews, Cram101. (2009). Outlines and highlights for psychology by david g myers, isbn . Worth Pub. </li></ul><ul><li>Langlois, J., & et al, (1991). Facial diversity and infant preferences for attractive faces. Developmental Psychology , 27 (1), 79-84. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodes, G. (2006). The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Annual Review of Psychology , (57), 199–226. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.readthehook.com/101140/eye-culture-tells-us-whos-gorgeous </li></ul>
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