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1. Experiment Complete the table in as much detail as possible, make sure that your teacher has approved your experiment. What are you going to investigate? I am going to…
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  • 1. Experiment Complete the table in as much detail as possible, make sure that your teacher has approved your experiment. What are you going to investigate? I am going to investigate whether pictures are easier to remember than words. Please state your HE –There will be a significant difference between the recall rate of words experimental and null and pictures. hypotheses (two tailed hypothesis) HN- There is no significant difference between the recall rate of words and pictures Please state the IV and the IV DV DV Presentation of stimuli, whether in Recall rate of either words or pictures words or pictures What is the DESIGN of your Design Why? experiment? Independent Measures design To account for order effects and to prevent Independent/Repeated? demand characteristics, which would effect the validity of the study Please describe your 2 Condition A conditions. Participants would be presented with 20 words, all of the words are nouns and will be presented on white paper, black type using Times New Roman font at 14pt (appendix 1) Condition B Participants would be presented with 20 pictures, all the pictures relate to the nouns used in condition A. The pictures are all in colour and are printed on white paper. (appendix 2) Give details of the sampling Sampling Method Advantages? – Participants are available, method The sampling method was opportunity and this is time and cost effective. sample. Any person that fitted the criteria was used in the study. Disadvantages – Bias in the sample, the sample will lack generalisability. Give details of the sample The sample was 20 participants aged 16-18. All participants were studying Psychology at AS level. 10 males and 10 females all from a sixth form in Coventry. Give details of the controls All participants were given a time limit of 1 minute (timed by a stopwatch) to used in the experiment memorise the words and pictures. Each participant was tested individually in complete silence. They were given the same words or pictures depending on what condition they were in. Will any ethical guidelines be No ethical guidelines will be contravened. All participants will give their full contravened? informed consent and will be told they have the right to withdraw at anytime. Participants will be told that all results will remain confidential and they will not suffer at psychological or physical harm. 1
  • 2. Experiment Complete the table in as much detail as possible, make sure that your teacher has approved your experiment. What materials are used in Stop watch the experiment 20 WORDS LIST 20 PICTURE LIST Distraction task – Sudoku puzzle (appendix 3) Paper & pen – to recall word Please give details of the Participants will be asked to participate in a study looking at the memory or procedure. Starting with certain stimuli, they will be asked to given their full informed consent and will be gaining consent and ending told that they have the right to withdraw at anytime and that all results will with debriefing the remain confidential. participants Participants will be randomly allocated to each condition, they will be taken to a room individually and will be told to try and memorise the stimuli that they have been given (words or pictures). They will be given exactly 1 minute to memorise the list. Participants will they be given the Sudoku puzzle and will be given 1 minute to try and complete it as much as they can, this will be timed using the stop watch. Participants will then be given a piece of paper and pen and will be asked to recall the original list that they were given. They will be given 1 minute to do this. Participants will be thanked and told that all results will remain confidential and should they wish to access the study and its finding they can do on a later date. They will be told the nature of the study and asked if they have any questions. Results will then be analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Data collected – please give P Condition Condition B A B details of the raw scores words pictures Words Pictures 1 10 1 12 Mean 10.1 14.3 2 11 2 13 Mode 12 14 3 3 3 17 Median 10.5 14 4 7 4 14 Range 14 10 5 12 5 11 Standard 4.30 3.196 Deviation 6 15 6 19 The raw data shows that there is a 7 17 7 9 difference between the number of 8 12 8 14 words and pictures recalled. More 9 9 9 18 pictures have been recalled than words. 10 5 10 16 Test of Difference Explain why you have chosen this test Mann Whitney U or Wilcoxon Mann Whitney U test The Mann Whitney U test was used because Signed Ranks Test? the data is at least ordinal level and not related 2
  • 3. Experiment Complete the table in as much detail as possible, make sure that your teacher has approved your experiment. Analysis of Statistical test – stick your print out here Analysis of Results N Tails Probability Observed Critical Hypothesis N1 -10 Two P<=0.05 21.5 23 Experimental N2- 10 Hypothesis accepted The observed value for U was 21.5, this did not exceed the critical value of 23. Therefore Describe what the table the experimental hypothesis is accepted. There is a significant difference between the shows recall rate of words and pictures. The descriptive statistics show that the calculated mean for words was 10.1 and the calculated mean for pictures was 14.3. Therefore more pictures were recalled than words. The calculated Standard Deviation for words and pictures was low, but the lowest standard deviation was for pictures, therefore, most of the results were very close to the mean. 16 14 12 Graph to show the Sketch Visual statistic 10 8 means for the display – bar chart to show 6 4 number of words the means for each condition. 2 0 and pictures recalled. 3
  • 4. Experiment Complete the table in as much detail as possible, make sure that your teacher has approved your experiment. The results showed that there was significant difference between the Discussion number of words and pictures recalled. Therefore the experimental State what the results show hypothesis is accepted and the null hypothesis rejected. The and what you have found. descriptive statistics showed that more pictures were recalled than words. Evaluation of the procedure and method Demand Characteristics Ecological Validity Generalisability Limitations in the sampling method Individual Differences – the use of independent measures. Recommendations for future research And effects of different designs and samples 4
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