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1. 3 nd November 2009 2. <ul><li>It is better to have loved and lost, than never to have loved at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Lord…
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  • 1. 3 nd November 2009
  • 2. <ul><li>It is better to have loved and lost, than never to have loved at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Lord Tennyson </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree? </li></ul><ul><li>Which do you think is worse for children? </li></ul>
  • 3. Privation <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand and be able to define privation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To know about the long term effects of privation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To know some of the research and case studies involved with privation </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Privation <ul><li>What is Privation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The failure to develop an attachment bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas deprivation is the loss of an attachment, privation describes children who have never made an attachment. </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Privation <ul><li>Bowlby’s Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis (1953) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical period – first 12 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotropy – innate tendency to bond with one adult female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If mother-infant attachment is broken in the first years of life, the child’s emotional and intellectual development would be seriously and permanently harmed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, Bowlby did not differentiate between deprivation and privation </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Privation <ul><li>What sort of studies could be carried out to investigate the effects of privation? </li></ul><ul><li>Working with the person next to you, come up with an idea for an experiment or study that can investigate the effect of privation on the development of children. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Privation <ul><li>Harlow’s Monkeys (1959) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the long term effects of privation in the monkeys? </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Privation <ul><li>Harlow’s Monkeys (1959) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the long term effects of privation in the monkeys? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not like interacting with other monkeys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate sexual responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost impossible to breed (artificial insemination) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The female monkeys made terrible mothers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think this can apply to humans? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What behaviour would you expect in humans who had suffered privation? </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Privation <ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To investigate whether early maternal deprivation has a persisting effect or whether this can be modified by later experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous research suggested that children can often recover from the effects of deprivation. Is the same true for privation? </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Privation <ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A longitudinal study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They charted the progress of 65 children who grew up in a care home. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The home had a high turnover of staff, and there was a policy against letting children form attachments with the carers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. Privation <ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the age of 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 had been adopted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 had returned home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25 remained at the institution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were assessed for attitudes and behaviour, and compared with a control group of children raised “normally”. They were assessed again at 8 years old, and again at 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the age of 16, the researchers were only able to locate 39 of the original 65 children. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Privation <ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The children did not have any deep relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were ore attention seeking and more indiscriminately affectionate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The children who had been adopted or returned to their parents had formed normal close attachments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, they were still more attention seeking and over friendly, and less popular. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 13. Privation <ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The children that had been adopted had close attachments with their parents. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The children returned to their natural parents were less likely to be attached </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, all of the children were less likely to have a close friend, or to be part of a friendship group. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were also more likely to be bullies and to be involved in fights. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 14. Privation <ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can you conclude from these findings about the effects of early privation? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What were the long term effects? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think were the important factors for the children who were able to overcome some of the effects? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Privation <ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using pages 64-65 of your textbook sumarise the main points of the study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. Privation <ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What sort of children might end up in a care home? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What could cause them to be there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What sort of problems can be caused when a child is returned back to their natural family? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What sort of families adopt? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of child is more likely to get adopted? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What problems do you think adopted children might have? </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Privation <ul><ul><li>Hodges and Tizard (1989) - Criticisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attrition rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which children are more likely to remove themselves from the study? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certain children more likely to be adopted? How would this effect the findings? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certain children are more likely to end up in a care home in the first place. How would this effect the findings? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other explanations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What other negative effects could being adopted have? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is privation the only cause? What else besides the lack of attachment could be to blame? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. Privation – Activity <ul><li>What advice would you give to a couple who have just adopted a five year old child who had been raised in a deprived Romanian orphanage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What sort of behaviour should they expect from the child? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should they treat the child? </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Research Methods <ul><li>The Hodges and Tizard study is known as a Longitudinal study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same subjects are investigated over a long period of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it independent or repeated measures? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working in pairs, come up with one strength and two weaknesses of this type of study. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 20. Privation <ul><li>Revision Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is privation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is it different from deprivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the long term effects? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can these effects be overcome? </li></ul></ul>
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