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1. An experiment which is conducted Laboratory experiment under highly controlled conditions. An experiment which is carried out in Field experiment ‘the field ’.…
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  • 1. An experiment which is conducted Laboratory experiment under highly controlled conditions. An experiment which is carried out in Field experiment ‘the field ’. That is, in a real world situation. An experiment where the Quasi experiment independent variable is not manipulated by the experimenter. Independent measures When the two groups / conditions in an experiment consist of different design individuals. Repeated measures When the two groups / conditions in an experiment consist of the same design individuals. Every participant in one group / Match pairs design condition is matched with a very similar person in the other group. The variable that is manipulated by Independent variable the researcher. The variable that is measured by the Dependent variable researcher.
  • 2. A variable which could affect the Extraneous variable dependent variable but which is controlled. A variable which has an unintentional Confounding variable effect on the dependent variable. A statement stating there will be no Null hypothesis significant difference or relation between two conditions or variables. One-tailed / directional Predicts the direction of the difference or predicts either a positive or negative hypothesis correlation will occur. Predicts a difference between two Two-tailed / non- variables but not the direction or in terms of correlational analysis it does not predict directional hypothesis either a positive or negative correlation. A statement to be tested, predicts Experimental hypothesis there will be a difference between two conditions. A statement to be tested, predicts there will be a relationship between two Alternate hypothesis variables or a difference between two conditions. A statement to be tested, predicts Correlational hypothesis there will be a relationship between two variables.
  • 3. Correlation refers to a measure of Correlation how strongly two or more variables are related to each other. A graphical way of presenting the Scatter graph data, to display the relationship between two variables. Unstructured The researchers record the observation behaviour they can see. High values of one variable are Positive correlation associated with high values of the other. High values of one variable are Negative correlation associated with low values of the other. If there is no correlation between Uncorrelated two variables. Any method which involves asking Self report the participant a question of some form. Interview A verbal self report.
  • 4. A type of self report method which Questionnaire consist of a set of questions in written form. Questions that allow the respondent Open question to give their own answer. Questions which provide a limited Closed question choice of responses. Respondents are asked to state on a scale Likert scale (usually it is 1 - 5 or 1 - 7) how strongly they agree with a statement. Data that focus on numbers and Quantitative data frequencies. Data that describe meaning and Qualitative data experiences. Investigations where the researcher Observation observes a situation and records what happens. The researchers design a type of Structured observation coding scheme to record the participants' behavior.
  • 5. Non-participant A type of observational study whereby the researcher does not join in with the observation activity being observed. A type of observational study where Participant observation the observer is also a participant in the activity being studied. The researcher decides on a time say Time sampling 5 seconds and then records what behaviour is occurring at that time. The researcher recoding an event Event sampling every time it happens. The group of participants taking part Sample in the research. The group of people from whom the Target population sample is drawn. It consists of taking the sample from people who are available at the time the Opportunity sample study is carried out and fit the criteria you are looking for. Volunteer / self-selecting Participants become part of a study because they volunteer when asked sample or in response to an advert.
  • 6. Every member of the target population has Random sample an equal chance of being chosen to participant in the study. Involves classifying the population into categories and then choosing a sample which consists of Stratified sample participants from each category in the same proportions as they are in the population. Refers to how well a study can be Ecological validity related to or reflects everyday, real life. A set of guidelines which Ethical guidelines psychologists carrying out research should follow. This involves alternating the order in which Counterbalancing participants do the conditions of the experiment to avoid order effects. When people behave differently Order effects because of the order in which the conditions are performed. This involves comparing the ratings of Inter-rater reliability two or more observers and checking for agreement in their measurements. Measure of central This is a type of descriptive statistic which is used to describe the typical tendency value of a set of scores.
  • 7. This is calculated by adding all the Mean values and then dividing by the total number of values. This is calculated by finding the Mode values which occur most frequently. This is calculated by placing all of the Median values in order and finding the mid- point. This is used to describe the ‘spread- Measure of dispersion outness’ of a set of scores. Involves calculating the difference Range between the highest and lowest scores. Inferential statistics allow us to make Inferential statistics a conclusion related to our hypothesis. A way to describe a summary of our Descriptive statistics data. Nature Inherited and genetic
  • 8. Experiences and influences after Nurture conception Instructions for conducting a piece of Procedure research, this should be repeatable. Operationalising Stating a clear way that the independent variable is going to be manipulated and the variables dependent variable is to be measured Any aspect of a study which has an Demand characteristics influence on participants to do or answer what is expected of them. This is the tendency to perceive the Ethnocentric bias world from your own cultural group. The argument that we can explain behaviour Reductionism and experiences by reference to only one factor, such as physiology or learning Refers to how consistent a measuring Reliability device is. Refers to whether a study measures Validity or examines what it claims to measure or examine.
  • 9. A group which does not receive the Control group manipulation of the independent variable and can be used for comparison A relationship between actions or Cause and effect events such that one is the result of the other. A study carried out over a very short Snap-shot study period of time such as hours and days. Participants wanting to portray Social desirability bias themselves in a good light. Refers to when an initial participant Snowball sampling leads the researcher to further participants. A study is carried out over a longer Longitudinal study period of time such as weeks, months or years Refers to the extent to which results Generalisability from one sample of participants can be applied to wider groups. A smaller version of a study carried Pilot study out before the main research.
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