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1. BEHAVIOURISM /LEARNING THEORY 2. Assumptions: <ul><li>1. All behaviour is learned from the environment after birth. This is a nurture approach. Either…
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  • 2. Assumptions: <ul><li>1. All behaviour is learned from the environment after birth. This is a nurture approach. Either through Classical Conditioning – Pavlov- Association, Operant Conditioning – Skinner – Reinforcement or Social Learning Theory – Bandura – Imitation. </li></ul>
  • 3. 2 . Only observable, objective behaviour should be studied, not what is in people’s minds or thoughts – because these cannot be seen and measured therefore will remain subjective.
  • 4. 3 . The only method of value is the scientific, experimental method.
  • 5. Strengths <ul><li>Very scientific - uses lab’ experiments </li></ul><ul><li>which are well controlled with high internal </li></ul><ul><li>validity. </li></ul>
  • 6. 2 . It has shown that much behaviour is learned through the principles of operant and classical conditioning – i.e. reinforcement, extinction and punishment.
  • 7. 3 . It has many practical applications: e.g. behaviour modification in schools/hospitals; behaviour therapy for phobias and OCD.
  • 8. 4 . SLT has overcome many of the weaknesses of CC and OC through the principles of observational learning which takes account of the cognitive elements in learning.
  • 9. Limitations <ul><li>1. Most of the experimental work for CC and OC has been done on animals and generalised to humans. But animal behaviour, more than human b, is governed by instincts and there is less room for free-will. </li></ul>
  • 10. 2. Many lab’ experiments lack ecological validity.
  • 11. 3. It has ignored some inbuilt , genetic biases in learning which are due to evolution.
  • 12. 4. CC and OC ignored the important mental/cognitive processes involved in learning such as expectations, identification and imitation which SLT acknowledges
  • 13. Possible examination C) questions: - <ul><li>Outline one assumption of the behaviourist approach in psychology (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the behaviourist approach could explain aggression (4) </li></ul>
  • 14. (c) Describe one similarity and one difference between the Bandura, Ross & Ross study and any other developmental study (6)
  • 15. (d) Discuss the strengths and limitations of the behaviourist approach using examples from any study involving behaviourism (12)
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