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1. Psychology AS – Unit 1<br />(AQA Specification A)<br /> <br />Cognitive Psychology – Models of memory<br /> What you need to know : <br…
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Psychology AS – Unit 1<br />(AQA Specification A)<br /> <br />Cognitive Psychology – Models of memory<br /> What you need to know : <br />Understand what is meant by the term ‘model’.<br />Describe the multi-store model of memory and understand the functions and limitations of its components (sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory).<br />Describe and evaluate the evidence upon which this model is based.<br />Understand the concepts of capacity, duration and encoding.<br />Understand how these aspects of memory have been measured.<br />Explain the strengths and weaknesses of the multi-store model.<br />Understand what is meant by the concept of working memory.<br />Describe the working memory model and understand the functions and limitations of its components.<br />Describe and evaluate the evidence on which the working memory model is based.<br />Understand the strengths and weaknesses of the model.<br />Understand what is meant by eyewitness testimony (EWT).<br />Be aware of some of the factors that affect the accuracy of EWT.<br />Understand the impact of misleading information on EWT.<br />Describe the cognitive interview technique and understand its rationale.<br />Describe and evaluate evidence that underpins our understanding of EWT.<br />Describe various strategies for improving memory.<br />Understand how such strategies are related to memory research.<br />Cognitive Psychology – Specification<br />The multi-store model including concepts of encoding, capacity and duration. Strengths and weaknesses of the model.<br />The working memory model, including its strengths and weaknesses.<br />Eyewitness testimony and factors affecting the accuracy of EWT, including anxiety, age of witness.<br />Misleading information and the use of the cognitive interview.<br />Strategies for memory improvement.<br />Models of Memory<br />What is memory?<br />Memory is a process of _____________________________ information after the original thing is no longer present. In order for this happen, there are three stages : _____________________________ (putting information in), _____________________________ (maintaining and holding the information) and _____________________________ (remembering and extracting).<br />Capacity<br />A measure of the amount of information that can be held in memory. It is measured in terms of bits of information such as number of digits or number of chunks.<br />Short term memory (STM) has a _____________________________ capacity store of 7 plus or minus 2 pieces of information, while long term memory (LTM) has a potentially _____________________________ capacity.<br />Duration<br />A measure of how _____________________________ a memory lasts before it is no longer available.<br />Information in STM lasts for only a limited amount of time ie: up to _____________________________ seconds, while in LTM it could last forever.<br />Encoding<br />The way information is changed so that it can be stored in the memory. Information enters the brain via the senses (eg through the eyes and ears) and then it is stored in various forms.<br />Such as: <br />_____________________________ (through sounds) for the STM and<br />_____________________________ (through meaning) for the LTM.<br />In the STM we hold memory for events in the_____________________________. These will disappear unless they are_____________________________. The STM has a limited duration and capacity and information is encoded_____________________________. Whereas, in the LTM we hold memory for events that have happened in the past, anywhere from 2 minutes to 100 years ago. It has an unlimited duration and capacity and information is encoded_____________________________. STM and LTM also differ in the way that we forget information….In STM we tend to forget through _____________________________ and in LTM we tend to forget mainly through_____________________________.<br />_____________________________ tasks are used to investigate STM and LTM. From these investigations researchers have found that people are able to remember the last few words in a list (_____________________________) as these were the last words that they had heard and are still present in the STM. They also found that people can remember the first few words (_____________________________) as these words were at the beginning of the list and have been rehearsed and therefore transferred into the LTM. However, the words in the middle tend to be forgotten (_____________________________) as they have not been rehearsed and therefore get displaced by the words that follow them.<br />Research evidence: Glanzer and Cunitz(1966)/Peterson and Peterson(1959)<br />AimsProceduresGave participants lists of words presented 1 at a time then tested free recall. Used 2 conditions in their experiment.Condition 1 were asked to recall words immediately after they had been presented with the words.Condition 2 were given a distractor task of counting backwards in multiples of 3 for 30 seconds before they were asked to recall the words.FindingsThey found the expected serial position curve in condition 1.In condition 2 they found that the distractor task had interfered with the recency effect and therefore the last few words were not well remembered.ConclusionsBy counting backwards in multiples of 3, this displaced the last few words (recency effect) in the list.However, it did not affect the recall of the earlier words (primacy effect) because these had already been rehearsed and transferred over to the LTM.CriticismsIt was done in a laboratory and was therefore artificial. It cannot be generalised to everyday life. (lacks ecological validity)It is easily replicated and has been as it is highly controlled.<br />Glanzer found that there were a number of other factors that affected the _____________________________ only ie: the slower the lists were presented the better performance was, older people tended to remember less than younger people and the more familiar words were the easier it was for people to remember them. <br />This suggests that STM and LTM are _____________________________ stores.<br />The multi-store model of memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin – 1968)<br />This model proposes that memory is a flow of information from one storage system to another. They suggested that there were 3 stages that information passes through in a fixed sequence.<br />_____________________________ – Information enters the sensory memory through the 5 senses where it stays for a short time (_____________________________), only fractions of a second. If it is not paid attention to it will _____________________________ and if it is paid attention to it will be passed on to the STM store. Atkinson and Shiffrin focus on 3 separate sensory stores: _____________________________ store – what we see, _____________________________ store – what we hear and _____________________________ store – what we touch and feel. <br />Research evidence: Sperling (1960) used a chart with 3 rows of letters which he briefly flashed to his participants. Participants were asked to immediately recall as many letters as possible. Most of them could only recall 4/5 but remembered that there were other letters just couldn’t recall them. He then decided to retest this using 3 tones (high tone, medium tone and low tone) which were played after each row was shown. He found that participants were able to remember 3 items from each row. This suggests that on average they were able to remember 9 to 10 items from a possible 12 on the chart.<br />_____________________________ – Memory traces are encoded usually through sound but can be encoded through other kinds of encoding. However, this memory store is very limited in terms of_____________________________. Information will only stay in this store for a few seconds (_____________________________) before it is _____________________________ if it is not _____________________________ and transferred to the LTM. Increasing rehearsal leads to transfer from STM to LTM.<br />It can then remain in the LTM forever unless brain damage occurs or be inaccessible due to_____________________________. Atkinson and Shiffrin saw STM as a unitary store which means it has no separate compartments.<br />Research evidence: see Glanzer and Cunitz above for evidence of _____________________________ (distinction between STM and LTM). Other compelling evidence to support this distinction is Shallice and Warrington(1970) presented the case of KF who had been in a motorcycle crash where he had sustained_____________________________. His LTM seemed to be unaffected but he was only able to recall the last bit of information he had heard in his STM. <br />Alzheimer’s disease involves_____________________________. People suffering from Alzheimer’s have been found to have low levels of the _____________________________ acetylcholine. This suggests that acetylcholine is important for memory. Drachman and Sahakian tested this by blocking one groups action of acetylcholine in the brain and found that they performed poorly on LTM tasks.<br />To test capacity of STM Jacobs(1887) used the_____________________________. Baddeley(1999) found that if participants read the numbers aloud, they would be stored briefly in the echoic store which strengthens the memory trace. Later Miller(1956) tested capacity and found ‘_____________________________’. Cowan criticised Miller as he believed that performance on tasks could be affected by rehearsal and LTM and might not necessarily demonstrate capacity of STM. It is believed that memory span could be increased through _____________________________ (when we group letters/items into recognisable forms they are easier to remember as one thing and we can therefore remember 7 chunks plus or minus 2 according to Miller). <br />To test _____________________________ of STM Peterson and Peterson(1959) attempted an investigation where they presented participants with trigrams (3 letters that do not form a pronounceable word) one at a time and in between each trigram the participants were asked to count backwards in threes from a specified number. This was done to _____________________________ rehearsal. Each time this was done, the amount of seconds increased from 3, 6, 9…18 seconds after which participants were asked to stop counting and repeat the trigram back to investigator. This method was repeated a number of times and each time different trigrams were used. Their findings were that participants were able to recall 80% after 3 seconds without rehearsal which got worse and worse as the time increased. Finally after 18 seconds fewer than 10% could recall correctly. They therefore claimed that information disappears through trace decay quite quickly if rehearsal is prevented. They used repeated measures to avoid the criticism of individual differences. The loss of information could have been due to _____________________________ and it being _____________________________ rather than due to lack of rehearsal.<br />Conrad(1964) tested encoding by showing his participants a random sequence of 6 consonants rapidly on a screen. He used 2 conditions: Acoustically similar (B,G,C etc.) and Acoustically dissimilar (F,J,X etc.). Participants were asked to write down the letters in correct serial order immediately after the presentation. He found that people made errors by _____________________________ similar sounding letters when they sounded the same but found it easier when they sounded different. His ideas were supported by Posner and Keele(1967).<br />_____________________________ – memory is usually encoded _____________________________ (encoded through the meaning of the item). It has a potentially _____________________________ capacity, _____________________________ is thought to be limited to our lifespan, however Bahrick et al.(1975) did a study to test duration in LTM but his results were inconclusive as he could not determine whether their loss of memory was due the passage of time or the ageing effects of older participants. This is a lasting memory created by_____________________________. Storage of information for any longer than 30 seconds counts as long term memory.<br />People are able to remember various things in their past if they are given _____________________________ rather than being asked to recall them. Some types of material are remembered better than others, that is if the individual acquires a _____________________________ rather than just learning facts. (Conway et al. 1991)<br />Baddeley(1966) believed that STM encodes acoustically from his study where he used 4 categories of familiar words, like Conrad (acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar and semantically dissimilar). He extended the length of the word lists from 5 words to 10 and prevented rehearsal. Each list was presented 4 times and recall was tested after a 20 minute interval. He found words that were similar in meaning were poorly recalled but acoustic similarity had no effect on recall. Therefore he believed that LTM encodes semantically. However, LTM does use other types of encoding such as familiar people (_____________________________), songs (_____________________________) etc.<br />Strengths and weaknesses of the multi-store model<br />The multi-store model has been an influential model that is still used today.This model is reductionist (very over-simplified). It does not reflect the complexity of memory.Serial position effect examined by Murdock(1962) demonstrating the primacy and recency effect provides support for the existence of 2 separate memory stores.Multi-store model of memory emphasises the role of rehearsal in transferring information between STM and LTM, however Craik and Lockhart found that items are better remembered when they are processed semantically (eg: flashbulb memories are imprinted immediately to LTM without rehearsal)The case study of K.F. by Shallice and Warrington(1970) also provides support for the multi-store model of memory as it shows that he had a poor STM but his LTM was still normal.Atkinson and Shiffrin explained this as a linear model with information having to pass through the STM to reach the LTM. However, sometimes information has to be retrieved from LTM before STM can process it.Most of the research was performed in a laboratory and is therefore artificial, it does not reflect memory in everyday life.<br />The Working Memory Model – Baddeley and Hitch(1974)<br />This model is a ______________________________into the short term memory. It states that there are a number of ______________________________which handle different processes (sound and visual data) rather than only one store like the multi-store model. This is an ______________________________process when working on information.<br />Research evidence: They devised the dual task technique to test this. <br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Our memory according to this model consists of a central executive, which has a limited capacity and is free of sound and visual data, as well as two slave systems. The central executive controls, allocates attention and directs the two slave systems. It sets task goals, monitoring and correcting errors, starting the rehearsal process, switching attention between tasks, inhibiting irrelevant information, retrieving information from the LTM and coordinating the activity needed to carry out more than one processing task at a time.<br />Research evidence: Baddeley(1996) asked participants to put together random strings of numbers on a keyboard. Whilst doing this they were asked in 3 conditions, to recite the alphabet or count from 1 or alternating between numbers and letters. They were not allowed to let a pattern emerge with their string of numbers. He found that both of these tasks were using the central executive simultaneously.<br />The ______________________________/Articulatory loop is an ______________________________system that is responsible for encoding data acoustically. It acts like an inner voice and______________________________. It is therefore primarily concerned with our ______________________________and production of speech. It holds verbal information in a speech-based form. It consists of a passive storage system called the ______________________________and an articulatory loop.<br />Research evidence: Baddeley et al.(1975) used 2 conditions where they presented participants with word lists for short bursts of time and asked them to write them down in order. In condition 1 the 5 one syllable words were familiar words eg: harm, wit etc. whereas in condition 2 they were polysyllable words eg: organisation, university etc. They found that the short words were remembered more than the polysyllabic words on average. They named this the ‘word length effect’ and claimed that the capacity of the loop was determined by the length of time it took to say a word rather than amount of items on a list. It was 1.5 seconds. They produced more evidence for the articulatory loop when they looked at the word length effect under conditions of articulatory suppression (when a participant is given an exercise where they would use the articulatory loop but simultaneously asked to chant something meaningless avoiding rehearsal). This suggests that short and long words must be being processed somewhere else like in the central executive.<br />The ______________________________acts almost like an ______________________________eye and is responsible for visual spatial coding, like a sketch pad for visual data such as where your fridge is in your kitchen. It consists of a ______________________________visual store called the ______________________________which is connected to an ______________________________acting as a ______________________________mechanism. They can both be used as ______________________________systems but work ______________________________of each other.<br />Research evidence: Shallice and Warrington(1970) These findings suggest that different parts of the brain are involved in short term and long term memory. It also demonstrates that there are different stores in short term memory as the subjects short term forgetting of auditory letters and digits was much greater than that of visual images and he was unable to process verbal materials however he could process meaningful sounds. <br />Shepard and Feng(1972) used shapes that could be folded into blocks and participants were asked to imagine folding these into blocks with the grey area being the base. They were asked if the arrows would meet head on in the finished cube. They found that the more folds there were the longer it took the participants to make a decision. This works in the same way as real life perception which implies that people will find it difficult to do 2 tasks involving the visuo-spatial sketchpad simultaneously.<br />See Klauer and Zhao(2004) page 22 for supporting evidence for visual cache.<br />Evaluation<br /&g
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