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1. St.Helen’s School THE BIOLOGICAL Psychology APPROACH Y12 Part 3 of the AS course in Psychology [Dr. Stuart M. Brown] [St. Helen’s School] [Eastbury Road Northwood]…
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  • 1. St.Helen’s School THE BIOLOGICAL Psychology APPROACH Y12 Part 3 of the AS course in Psychology [Dr. Stuart M. Brown] [St. Helen’s School] [Eastbury Road Northwood]
  • 2. Biological approach: Definitions and concepts Lesson Lesson focus Specification Teaching and learning activities Resources Homework reference Definition of the approach 1a, 1bi, vi, List characteristics shared by you and Prepare for family members/guardians to consider the next lesson The influence of genes and the nervous 3a, 3b role of genes and upbringing. investigating system on behaviour and individual synaptic action differences. Reaction time test (catching a ruler) Ruler on considering the role of the CNS. http://faculty.w ashington.edu/c hudler/neurok. html Definition of the approach 1b ii, iii, iv, v Label a diagram of the neuron and synapse Diagram of the Describe the 3a neuron and synapse terms: Describe the role of neurotransmitters in 1.Synapse human behaviour. Use examples of major Match the substance with the resulting Matching activity 2.Receptor neurotransmitters and consider their behavioural response, e.g. chocolate and 3.Neurone influence on human behaviour. happiness, alcohol and motor impairment 4.Neurotransmi etc. tter 5.Genes Methodology/how science works 2a, c vi Write a conclusion for Gottesman and Description and Evaluate twin 3b Shields study findings with regards to how table of results of and adoptions Describe and evaluate twin and adoption 4a genes influence behaviour and assess the Gottesman and studies as a studies e.g. Gottesman and Shields(1966) conclusion drawn (nature/nurture debate). Shields study research schizophrenia in twins. (1966) method. The use of control groups.
  • 3. Biological approach: Gender Lesson Lesson focus Specification Teaching and learning activities Resources Homework reference Methodology/how science works 2b Write an illustrative pamphlet outlining the Access to PET and Complete PET and MRI scanning techniques for a MRI illustrations pamphlet. PET and MRI scanning techniques. local hospital to use with patients. Content 1b vii Make a list of the physical and Summarise the 3c psychological differences between males genetic, The biological explanation of gender, and females. hormonal and including The role of genes (XX XY), http://www.cord.ed brain hormones (progesterone, oestrogen and Paired investigation (web practical) into u/faculty/covey/he differences testosterone). hemisphere specialisation (language and misphere.html between males spatial ability). and females. Content 1b viii Find out your brain sex ID http://www.bbc.co. Summarise the 3c uk/science/humanb gender Lateralisation of functionality in males ody/sex/add_user.s differences in and females (language and spatial html brain abilities). lateralisation.
  • 4. Biological approach: Studies in detail Lesson Lesson focus Specification Teaching and learning activities Resources Homework reference Study in detail 4a Use footage or newspaper/magazine BBC Archive Outline Dr John articles of the case and David Reimer’s Money’s standpoint Describe and evaluate Money (1975) testimony. Outline the case history and http://www.bbc.c in terms of the study of gender reassignment, and David current situation. How can this case be o.uk/science/horiz nature/nurture Reimer’s subsequent testimony. used to examine the nature/nurture on/2000/boyturne debate debate? dgirl.shtml
  • 5. Methodology/how science works 2d, e, f Class debate – for and against the use of Split class into Draw a cartoon animals in laboratory experiments in the two groups. illustrating animals Consider the use of animals used in biological approach. studies in the laboratory experiments in the biological biological approach approach and label the picture in terms of credibility, ethics and practical issues. Psychodynamic approach: Key issue Lesson Lesson focus Specification Teaching and learning activities Resources Homework reference Content 3d Compare the biological explanation of Prior work in the Research what is gender development with the psychodynamic meant by the term Evaluate the biological approach to psychodynamic explanation (see prior approach ‘reductionism’ and explaining gender development, including notes). apply this term to a comparison with psychodynamic evaluating the explanations. biological explanation of gender.
  • 6. Key Issue 5a Class debate: divide the class into one Divide the class Create a mind map group for-transgender operations and into two groups. of concepts that Are transgender operations ethical? one group anti-transgender operations. can be used to explain the for and against arguments of transgender operations. Evidence of practice 6a Class study: devise and conduct a test to Examples of tests: Conduct the investigate the difference in http://www.kent.ac. devised test on a Short practical test of gender differences spatial/verbal ability between males and uk/careers/tests/spa small sample of on verbal and spatial tasks. females. tialtest.htm males and females.
  • 7. Biological approach: Evidence of practice Lesson Lesson focus Specification Teaching and learning activities Resources Homework reference Evidence of practice 2c iv Conduct a Mann-Whitney test of Calculations for thePresent the data 6b, c, d ix, xi difference on the scores collected. Mann-Whitney test obtained from the Carry out a Mann-Whitney statistical test test in an of difference. Interpret the findings of the test in a Statistical tables: appropriate graph Develop a hypothesis and apply one of short statement. http://www.simplyp and table two tailed with regard to the test. sychology.pwp.blu Interpret the findings in terms of level of eyonder.co.uk/stats significance, critical value and observed %20tables.pdf value. Graph paper Evidence of practice 2c i, ii, iii, v, Write a hypothesis for the study and Test your vi, vii, viii draw conclusions from the study; knowledge of Discuss the findings of the short practical. 6c, di, ii, iii, discussing the findings in a short report. levels of iv, v, vi, vii, measurement: Understand levels of measurement. viii, x, xii, Using examples, identify the level of Levels of http://life.csu.edu. measurement achieved e.g. students measurement au/qbm/measlevel Recap on the experiment and design, count how many males and females help examples. sc.htm sampling, allocation and control issues. (nominal), SAT score (ordinal). Summative assessment of topic 2.4 Assessment including multiple choice Assessment paper Set an individual and short answer questions. target to follow up Quiet classroom based on the test performance.
  • 8. Definition of the approach 1a, 1bi, vi, List characteristics shared by you and Prepare for family members/guardians to consider the next lesson The influence of genes and the nervous 3a, 3b role of genes and upbringing. investigating system on behaviour and individual synaptic action differences. Reaction time test (catching a ruler) Ruler on considering the role of the CNS. http://faculty.w Textbook p.232, p.265-267 ashington.edu/c hudler/neurok. html The first topic is the influence of genes and the nervous system on individual differences. Finding genetic correlates in people There are four main ways in which scientists look for genetic correlates of human characteristics. Those characteristics can be anything from an extra digit on the hands through to behavioural choices (e.g. thrill seekers). These four ways are families, twins, adoption and genetic markers. Families Characters that are consistently present in some families and not others, i.e. characters that appear to be inherited, are strong candidates for a genetic search. Tracing family histories and identifying individuals with and without the character can reveal the pattern of inheritance. The genetic basis of Huntington's disease was identified using extensive family pedigrees. Twins Identical twins have an identical genome. Any character that one twin has, the other twin must also have if the character is strongly associated with a particular gene. There should be what is referred to as a high level of concordance between the twins. Where only some pairs of identical twins share a character, there is said to be discordance and the character is said to be strongly influenced by environmental factors. Non-identical twins do not share a genome, indeed are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings, but do share a family environment. Comparisons of concordance between identical and non-identical twins for a character give some indication of the extent to which the character is associated with particular genes. Adoption Identical twins share a family environment and so concordance for a character could be due to their shared circumstances rather than their shared genome. Examining concordance where twins have been separated very early in life, usually by adoption into different families, allows the
  • 9. contribution of genome and environment to be distinguished. Note though that adoptive families must meet certain criteria set by the adoption agencies, and so adoptive families may share a number of qualities. Genetic markers These are short sections of ‘junk’ DNA which can be identified biochemically. If two people have one of these short sections in common, then, because of the way in which DNA is inherited, it is likely that they have alleles adjacent to the short section in common too. The short section ‘marks’ alleles for further investigation. 1. Which characteristics do you have that you could attribute to either inheritance or upbringing ? 2. Read the section in your textbook on twin studies p.232 to p.239 . Write a summary of how twin and adoption studies have contributed to the nature- nurture debate, you will find the chart on p.239 useful. Homework: Research synaptic action. Definition of the approach 1b ii, iii, iv, v Label a diagram of the neuron and synapse Diagram of the Describe the 3a neuron and synapse terms: Describe the role of neurotransmitters in 1.Synapse human behaviour. Use examples of major Examine the effects of cannabis on the Matching activity 2.Receptor neurotransmitters and consider their human nerve system. Research TCHT. 3.Neurone influence on human behaviour. 4.Neurotransmi tter Textbook p.265 5.Genes
  • 10. Neurotransmitters A Neuron is a specialized nerve cell that receives, processes, and transmits information to other cells in the body. We have a fixed number of neurons, which means they do not regenerate. About 10,000 neurons die everyday, but since we start out with between ten and 100 billion (Hooper & Teresi, 1987), we only lose about 2% over our lifetime. Information comes into the neuron through the Dendrites from other neurons. It then continues to the Cell Body – (soma) which is the main part of the neuron, which contains the nucleus and maintains the life sustaining functions of the neuron. The soma processes information and then passes it along the Axon. At the end of the axon are bulb-like structures called Terminal Buttons that pass the information on to glands, muscles, or other neurons. Anatomy of a Neuron
  • 11. Information is carried by biochemical substances called neurotransmitters. . The terminal buttons and the dendrites of other neurons do not touch, but instead pass the information containing neurotransmitters through a Synapse. Once the neurotransmitter leaves the axon, and passes through the synapse, it is caught on the dendrite by what are termed Receptor Sites. Neurotransmitters have been studied in relation to psychology and human behaviour. What we have found is that several neurotransmitters play a role in the way we behave, learn, the way we feel, and sleep. And, some play a role in mental illnesses. The following are those neurotransmitters which play a significant role in our mental health. Acetylcholine – involved in voluntary movement, learning, memory, and sleep § Too much acetylcholine is associated with depression, and too little in the hippocampus has been associated with dementia. Dopamine – correlated with movement, attention, and learning § Too much dopamine has been associated with schizophrenia, and too little is associated with some forms of depression as well as the muscular rigidity and tremors found in Parkinson’s disease. Norepinephrine – associated with eating, alertness § Too little norepinephrine has been associated with depression, while an excess has been associated with schizophrenia. Epinephrine – involved in energy, and glucose metabolism § Too little epinephrine has been associated with depression. Serotonin – plays a role in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behavior § Too little serotonin is associated with depression and some anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder. Some antidepressant medications increase the availability of serotonin at the receptor sites. GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid) – inhibits excitation and anxiety
  • 12. § Too little GABA is associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders. Some antianxiety medication increases GABA at the receptor sites. Endorphins – involved in pain relief and feelings of pleasure and contentedness Please note that these associations are merely correlations, and do not necessarily demonstrate any cause and effect relationship. We don’t know what other variables may be affecting both the neurotransmitter and the mental illness, and we don’t know if the change in the neurotransmitter causes the illness, or the illness causes the change in the neurotransmitter. Methodology/how science works 2a, c vi Write a conclusion for Gottesman and Description and Evaluate twin 3b Shields study findings with regards to how table of results of and adoptions Describe and evaluate twin and adoption 4a genes influence behaviour and assess the Gottesman and studies as a studies e.g. Gottesman and Shields(1966) conclusion drawn (nature/nurture debate). Shields study research schizophrenia in twins. (1966) method. The use of control groups. Textbook p.288 to 291 Genes and Schizophrenia Gottesman and Shields reviewed the results of 5 twin studies looking for concordance rates for schizophrenia (4). It was found that in MZ twins there was a concordance rate of 35-58% compared with dizygotic (DZ) twin rates that ranged from 9-26%. They also found a concordance rate in MZ twins of 75-91% when the sample was restricted to the most severe form of schizophrenia (5). The milder forms of schizophrenia had concordance rates of 17-33% suggesting that there may be greater genetic loading with severe forms of schizophrenia. The twin studies have all assumed that the shared environmental effects for MZ and DZ twins are equal which may be incorrect. Environmental factors could influence the development of schizophrenia but, adoption studies support the genetic theory of transmission. In 1994, a study looked at schizophrenia in the biological and adoptive relatives of schizophrenic adoptees, and compared this to a demographically matched group of control adoptees (6). In the sample of adoptees with chronic schizophrenia, the disorder was found exclusively in their biological relatives and not their adoptive relatives. The prevalence of the disorder was 10 times higher in the biological relatives of the schizophrenic adoptees than in the biological relatives of the control group. These studies make a clear case for the involvement of genetics in schizophrenia.
  • 13. Methodology/how science works 2b In a pair write an illustrative pamphlet Access to PET and Complete outlining the PET and MRI scanning MRI illustrations pamphlet. PET and MRI scanning techniques. techniques for a local hospital to use with patients. Textbook p.240 to 243 Draw a table comparing MRI and PET scanning techniques.(p.243) MRI and PET Scans Nuclear magnetic resonance (MRI) is produced by measuring the magnetism of spinning electrons and protons and their interactions with nearby atoms (usually protons) when they absorb energy. This provides information about the chemical structure of organic molecules. The use of the word “nuclear” has recently been avoided and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is now preferred. MRI uses a magnetic field from super- cooled magnets and can often distinguish more accurately between healthy and diseased tissue. A contrast agent is usually used. MRI can provide pictures from various angles and construct a three dimensional image. Some patients who have received certain types of surgical clips, metallic fragments, cardiac monitors or pacemakers cannot receive this type of scan. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans measure emissions from positron-emitting molecules. Because many useful, common elements have positron emitting forms (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), valuable functional information can be obtained. This is the main difference between the CT and MRI scans. The PET shows molecular function and activity not structure, and therefore can often differentiate between normal and abnormal (cancerous / tumour) or live versus dead tissue. Like SPECT (single photon emission tomography), PET also can product three dimensional images, and is usually used to compliment rather than replace the information obtained from CT or MRI scans. The first image shows a PET scan of a brain tumour the second an MRI scan of the brain. The MRI does not show blood flow to the same extent as a PET scan although it is difficult with a PET scan to locate brain function precisely.
  • 14. Content 1b vii Describe the role of genes in sex Summarise the 3c assignment. Describe one abnormal genetic, The biological explanation of gender, assignment caused by hormones. hormonal and including The role of genes (XX XY), http://www.cord.ed brain hormones (progesterone, oestrogen and Evaluate the biological explanation of u/faculty/covey/he differences testosterone). gender development. misphere.html between males and females. Textbook p.269 to 278 Sex assignment refers to the assigning of sex at the birth of a baby. In the majority of births, a relative, midwife, or doctor inspects the genitalia when the baby is delivered, sees ordinary male or female genitalia, and declares, "it's a girl" or "it's a boy" without hesitation or uncertainty. The assignment is perceived as a recognition of an essential aspect of this new human being, apparent to everyone. In nearly all cases, usually without conscious deliberation, the parents rear the child as a member of the assigned sex/gender. The act of assignment is a social act, and is in nearly all cases, and all societies, an act that seems a simple recognition of a simple biological reality. However, the usual act of assignment carries with it some conscious and unconscious assumptions, namely that the external genitalia reflect other aspects of biological sex, such as internal anatomy, gonads, hormones, and chromosomes. The act of assignment usually carries the implicit expectation that future gender identity will develop in the gender of anatomy, assignment, and rearing. In a minority of cases one or more of these assumptions prove false. There have been rare instances where parents (for a variety of reasons) have reared a biologically normal child in the opposite gender. More commonly, in the case of some transgender or intersex individuals, gender identity does not simply follow the biological sex or sex of rearing. In some conditions usually termed intersex, the external anatomy does not reflect accurately the internal anatomy.
  • 15. Content 1b viii Find out your brain sex ID http://www.bbc.co. Summarise the 3c uk/science/humanb gender Lateralisation of functionality in males Describe and explain how brain ody/sex/add_user.s differences in and females (language and spatial lateralisation and gender differences can html brain abilities). lead
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