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1. Memory Short term Long term 2. Task: Devise strategies to aid recall of the following numbers: <ul><li>7392814 </li></ul> 3. What were the…
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  • 1. Memory Short term Long term
  • 2. Task: Devise strategies to aid recall of the following numbers: <ul><li>7392814 </li></ul>
  • 3. What were the numbers? <ul><li>What techniques did you use to help you recall the numbers? </li></ul><ul><li>verbal rehearsal? </li></ul><ul><li>chunking? </li></ul><ul><li>association? </li></ul><ul><li>Which was most effective and why? </li></ul><ul><li>What do our findings suggest about STM? </li></ul>
  • 4. Studies of memory <ul><li>Jacobs (1887) </li></ul><ul><li>Used the digit span technique to assess the capability of STM – </li></ul><ul><li>participants were shown a series of numbers and tested on how many </li></ul><ul><li>digits they could recall – Jacobs found that the average recall of </li></ul><ul><li>numbers was 9.3 whilst for letters it was 7.3 - numbers easier to recall </li></ul><ul><li>as fewer of them! </li></ul><ul><li>Miller (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at ways of increasing capacity of STM - found span of </li></ul><ul><li>immediate memory is 7 – people could remember 7 dots on a screen – </li></ul><ul><li>up to 5 words or letters could be recalled if chunked together. </li></ul><ul><li>Cowan (2001) believed STM was more limited; only 4 chunks could be </li></ul><ul><li>recalled. </li></ul><ul><li>TRY IT AND SEE! </li></ul><ul><li>739 281 4 </li></ul>
  • 5. Lloyd and Margaret Peterson <ul><li>Students given three unrelated letters followed by a 3 digit number e.g. WRT 303 </li></ul><ul><li>They were asked to count down from the number in 3s or 4s – the time spent counting backwards ranged from 3 to18 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Their ability to the recall the letters was determined by the interval between counting; 90% remembered if they could stop counting after 3 seconds, only 2% of the sample could remember if they had counted for 18 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>What does the study reveal about the capacity of short term memory? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be an appropriate hypothesis for this study? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the IV/DV for this study? </li></ul>
  • 6. Key terms- research design: <ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal rehearsal of data improves recall in STM </li></ul><ul><li>Null Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal rehearsal of data doesn’t impact upon recall </li></ul><ul><li>IV – time spent counting back before being allowed to recall the letters </li></ul><ul><li>DV – ability to recall information </li></ul><ul><li>Issue – did the numbers displace the letters? Was duration of STM or displacement being identified? </li></ul>
  • 7. Review … <ul><li>What does Jacob’s research suggest about the capacity of STM? </li></ul><ul><li>What techniques improve recall? </li></ul><ul><li>What extraneous variables might have reduced the validity of the Petersons’ study? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be a suitable hypothesis for two other studies of STM? </li></ul>
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