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1. PSYA1 Revision. Cognitive PsychologyModels of MemoryMulti-store modelOne diagrammatic representation of how memory was proposed by A_______ & S_______ in 1968.…
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  • 1. PSYA1 Revision. Cognitive PsychologyModels of MemoryMulti-store modelOne diagrammatic representation of how memory was proposed by A_______ & S_______ in 1968. This MSM describes memory as having 3 separate stores.1. S_______ Memory2. S________ T______ M_______3. L________ T______ M________ Memory store capacity duration encodingInformation is passed from SM to STM if we pay a__________Information is passed from STM to LTM by r__________Strengths of the MSM are; It was the 1st model so influential It is supported by l_______ ex__________ It has f____ validity as ideas such at a_________ and r________ make sense.Weaknesses of the MSM are; STM and LTM now seem to be sub-divided so the model is o_____ s_______. Memories are now thought to move in b_____ directions. LTMs are sometimes stored without r__________.The Working Memory ModelAn elaboration was made by B__________& H________ in 1974. They suggested that STM had 3 components. The C________ E__________ The V________ S__________ S_________ The A________ P___________ L_______ thA 4 (the E______ B_______ ) was added by B_________ in 2000.The VSS stores and processes v________ and spacial information.The APL is made of the p________ store or inner e____ and a________ p_______ or inner v______.Strengths of the WMM Supported by lab experiments of multiple tasks. Separate visual and a________ stores supported by case studies of b_____ damaged patients.Weaknesses of WMM Only applies to STM It describes but not explains the slave systems. The idea of the C_______ E________ is still reductionist (over simplified)Key studies on models of memory. Jacobs (1887) study of memory span in STM Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) study of the duration of STM Bahrick et al.’s (1975) study of the duration of LTM
  • 2. Memory in everyday lifeEye Witness Testimony (EWT)Despite being very influential with juries, EWT has been shown to be unreliable.Factors effecting EWT – Misleading informationThe r_____l of information may be distorted by things that witnesses s___and h____ after the event. This may be due to Response Bias or Memory A_________Factors effecting EWT – AnxietyEWT is likely to be poor if the witness has an a________ personality; the crime was s_________for them personally or there was a w_________involvedFactors effecting EWT –AgeChilden and older people are more likely to make any choice c______, rather than not, and to be moresusceptible to m_______i_________than most adults. Children are also more confident in theirmemories than adults. Older people are more likely to produce ‘f______ m________triggered bymisleading questions.The cognitive interview.A process of recalling information based on the principle that storing memories is an a________process. There are 4 stages. 1. C________ R_________ 2. Report e________ 3. Recall from a changed p___________ 4. Recall in r________ orderEvaluation  Results in extensive recall  Widely used in various forms  Requires expensive training  Time consumingStrategies for memory improvement Organisation – sorting information into c________ based on pre-existing knowledge Mnemonics – techniques devised to improve memory o Method of L____- linking visual images of items to known locations. o Pegwords –linking visual images to pegwords (one is a b___ etc.) which have to be learned. o Story method –Creating a verbal s_____ based on the items to be remembered. Mind maps – creating a d_______ of words or ideas around a central theme.Evaluation  Organisation can be effective but depends on the categories used.  Mnemonics work because they create meaning but don’t work for abstract material and can slow recall.  Mind maps are effective because the learner is actively involved.Key Study on Memory in everyday life.Loftus and Palmer’s (1974) study of the effects of language on recall in EWT
  • 3. Cognitive Psychology Key Studies Mix and MatchStudies Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) study of the duration of STM Bahrick et al.’s (1975) study of the duration of LTM Loftus and Palmer’s (1974,) study of the effects of language on recall in EWT Jacobs (1887) study of memory span in STMProcedures High school year book pictures used to test name/image recall of different aged PPs. Gave PPs trigrams which they tried to recall after counting back in 3s for varying lengths of time PPs shown sequences of letters or numbers and asked to repeat in same order PPs shown film of crash and asked to estimate speeds. 5 groups each given different words Findings Average number recalled was between 5 and 9. Forgetting increased with delay. Only 10% recall after 18 seconds delay. 80% name recognition and 40% face recognition after 48 years. Estimated speed varied depending on the verb used (hit/smashed etc)Conclusions VLTM exists. STM is fragile, easily lost without rehearsal and distinct form LTM Lacks ecological validity, Leading questions can effect EWT STM has limited storageCommentary PPs may have got confused with the number of trigrams. Film – lacks mundane realism. PPs paid attention but had no emotional involvement Lacks mundane realism. Miller later suggested 7+/- 2 chunks of information stored High mundane realism but is a specific type of memory and may not apply to all.
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