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1. AS psychology Exam guide and revision workbook Work through the exercises in this booklet to help you with your revision. You still need to learn it. This booklet will…
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  • 1. AS psychology Exam guide and revision workbook Work through the exercises in this booklet to help you with your revision. You still need to learn it. This booklet will help you to structure your answers to maximise your marks in the exam.
  • 2. Unit 1: Introducing psychology 9 am June 7th 2010 Key approaches and biopsychology Gender development Research methods Unit 2: Social Psychology, Cognitive Psychology and Individual Differences 9 am June 10th 2010 Social influence Remembering and forgetting Anxiety disorders
  • 3. Past exam papers and mark schemes Go to www.aqa.org.uk and find the past papers and mark schemes for Psychology B. Look through the papers, have a go at the questions then mark them yourself with the mark scheme. You could even swap with someone else and get them to mark your work. This will help you understand what the examiner is looking for in each style of question.
  • 4. Unit 1: key approaches and biopsychology 10 mark question answer framework. Use this framework to help you structure your answer. Fill out one sheet for each approach, put the AO1 (description) in one colour and the AO2 (evaluation) in another. The biological approach The first basic assumption - genes The second basic assumption – biological structures The third basic assumption – evolution of behaviour Briefly describe 1 study (elaboration) Evaluation point 1 - The biological approach is deterministic because This contrasts with the humanistic approach which
  • 5. Evaluation point 2 - The biological approach is highly scientific because This contrasts with the psychodynamic approach which uses Evaluation point 3 - The biological approach is reductionist because The behaviourist approach is also reductionist because The behaviourist approach The first basic assumption – born a blank slate The second basic assumption – classical conditioning
  • 6. The third basic assumption – operant conditioning Briefly describe 1 study (elaboration) Evaluation point 1 - The behaviourist approach is deterministic because This contrasts with the humanistic approach which Evaluation point 2 - The behaviourist approach is highly scientific because This contrasts with the psychodynamic approach which Evaluation point 3 - The behaviourist approach is reductionist because
  • 7. The biological approach is also reductionist because The social learning theory approach The first basic assumption – learning through observation The second basic assumption – modelling The third basic assumption – mediating cognitive factors Briefly describe 1 study (elaboration) Evaluation point 1 - The SLT approach is reductionist because This contrasts with the humanistic approach which
  • 8. Evaluation point 2 - The SLT approach is highly scientific because This contrasts with the psychodynamic approach which Evaluation point 3 - The SLT approach uses lab experiments which are artificial because The behaviourist approach is also uses lab studies The cognitive approach The first basic assumption – internal mental processes The second basic assumption – use of models The third basic assumption – computer analogy
  • 9. Briefly describe 1 study (elaboration) Evaluation point 1 - The cognitive approach is mechanistic because This contrasts with the humanistic approach which Evaluation point 2 – The cognitive approach is highly scientific because This contrasts with the psychodynamic approach which Evaluation point 3 - The cognitive approach is reductionist because The biological approach is also reductionist because
  • 10. The Psychodynamic approach The first basic assumption – role of the unconscious The second basic assumption – psychosexual stages The third basic assumption – The structure of the personality Briefly describe 1 study (elaboration) Evaluation point 1 - The psychodynamic approach is deterministic because This contrasts with the humanistic approach which Evaluation point 2 - The psychodynamic approach is not scientific because This contrasts with the behaviourist approach which
  • 11. Evaluation point 3 - The psychodynamic approach is NOT reductionist because This contrasts with the biological approach which is reductionist because The humanistic approach The first basic assumption – free will The second basic assumption – self and self actualisation The third basic assumption – conditions of worth Briefly describe 1 study (elaboration) Evaluation point 1 - The humanistic approach is NOT deterministic because
  • 12. This contrasts with the biological approach which Evaluation point 2 - The humanistic approach is not scientific because This compares to the psychodynamic approach which also is not scientific Evaluation point 3 - The humanistic approach is ethnocentric because The psychodynamic approach is also ethnocentric because
  • 13. Biopsychology Fill out the table, writing out a brief definition of the key terms that you need to learn for biopsychology. Key term Definition Neuron Dendrite Nucleus Axon Terminal button Collateral branches Action potential Synapse Sensory neuron Motor neuron Interneuron Dopamine Serotonin Endorphins Nervous system PNS CNS Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Localisation of function Aphasia Motor cortex Sensory cortex Visual cortex
  • 14. Auditory cortex Lateralisation of function Neurosurgery Post mortem examination EEG Electrical stimulation PET scan 10 mark questions on biopsychology These questions could ask you to describe and evaluate Twin studies and adoption studies Methods used to identify cortical specialisation The split in AO1 and AO2 is the same here as in the approaches essays – AO1 = 5 marks, and AO2 = 5 marks. Your answer needs to be about 4 paragraphs long. Describe and evaluate the following methods used by psychologists to investigate the genetic basis of behaviour:  twin studies  adoption studies Describe how twin studies are used in biopsychology: Give an example of a study (e.g. Minnesota twin study)
  • 15. Evaluate the use of twin studies Describe how adoption studies are used: Give an example of a study (e.g.Kety) Evaluate the use of adoption studies Discuss two of the following methods that have been used to investigate areas of cortical specialisation in the brain:  neurosurgery  post-mortem examinations  scanning techniques Describe how the first method is used in biopsychology: Give an example
  • 16. Evaluate the method Describe how the second method is used: Give an example Evaluate the second method Gender development Complete the mind map for gender development. Help your revision by doing different sections in different colours. Next, write a list of key words on one side of a page, and their definitions on the other. Get someone to test you by giving you a key word and then checking you know what it means.
  • 17. Sex and Androgyny gender Biological Sex- role/stereoty pes Cultural variations Gender Development Nature and nurture SLT psychodyna Cognitive
  • 18. Research methods Practice exam questions: Below are TWO practice exam questions based on actual exams. Complete the questions, trying to do so without using your notes or textbook. Check your answers afterwards with your notes. 1 A psychologist conducted an experiment to investigate whether sleep deprivation disrupts participants’ problem solving. A stratified sample of twenty participants was selected to take part in the study. In the experiment, participants were presented with six different mathematical problems. In one condition, ten participants were each required to solve six problems, having been deprived of sleep for twenty-four hours prior to the study. In the control condition, the remaining ten participants, who had not been deprived of sleep, were each required to solve the same problems. Participants were allowed five minutes to solve each problem. The total number of mathematical problems solved by each participant is given in Table 1. Table 1 The total number of mathematical problems solved by each participant in the sleep-deprivation condition and control condition Participant Number of Participant Number of Sleep deprivation mathematical Control mathematical condition problems condition problems solved solved 1 2 1 4 2 1 2 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 6 5 3 5 5 6 2 6 3 7 2 7 4 8 1 8 6 9 1 9 6 10 1 10 6 Total 20 Total 48 (a) Using the values given in Table 1, (i) calculate the mean score for the sleep-deprivation condition and for the control condition; .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................................
  • 19. (ii) give the mode for the sleep-deprivation condition and for the control condition. Label your answers clearly. (4 marks) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... (b) What do the total scores indicate about the effects of sleep deprivation? Justify your answer. (2 marks) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... (c) Prior to the experiment, the psychologist conducted a pilot study. Outline why the psychologist chose to do this. (2 marks) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... (d) Explain one problem that might have arisen if the psychologist had chosen to use a repeated measures design in this study. (3 marks) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... (e) (i) The psychologist used stratified sampling to select the twenty participants. Outline what is meant by stratified sampling. (2 marks) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................................
  • 20. (ii) Identify one strength and one limitation of stratified sampling. (2 marks) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... (f) Identify and explain one ethical issue that the psychologist should have taken into account in this study. (3 marks) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... (g) Identify one strength and one limitation of the experimental method in psychology. (2 marks) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... 3. Two psychologists observed a sample of 3-year-old children. To save time, the sample was obtained from a nearby nursery. The aim was to investigate differences in play behaviour between same-sex pairs and boy-girl pairs. The children were observed playing together in a laboratory playroom containing a selection of toys. The psychologists assigned the children to pairs. There were ten boy-boy pairs, ten girl- girl pairs and ten boy-girl pairs. As the children played, both psychologists recorded the frequency of friendly behaviours for each pair. Friendly behaviours included sharing a toy, a positive verbal response to the other child and a positive behaviour to the other child, such as smiling. The frequency of friendly behaviours in same-sex and boy-girl pairs is shown in the table below (Table 1).
  • 21. Table 1: The frequency of friendly behaviours in same-sex and boy-girl pairs Type of pair Frequency of friendly behaviours Girl-Girl 85 Boy-Boy 56 Boy-Girl 32 3 (a) What might the psychologists conclude from the results shown in Table 1? ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... (3 marks) 3 (b) Draw an appropriate graphical display of the data presented in Table 1. Correctly label your display. (3 marks) 3 (c) Identify the dependent variable in this study. ........................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................
  • 22. (1 mark) 3 (d) State an appropriate hypothesis for this study. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... (2 marks) 3 (e) (i) Identify the sampling method used by the psychologists in this study. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. (1 mark) (ii) Explain one limitation of the sampling method that you have identified in your answer to 3(e)(i). .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. (2 marks) 3 (f) Explain one methodological reason why it was important for both psychologists to observe the children in this study. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... (3 marks) 3 (g) (i) Identify one ethical issue r
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