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1. Social influence 2 Investigation of different types of conformity Lesson objective: Be able to explain and evaluate how psychologists have investigated different types…
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  • 1. Social influence 2 Investigation of different types of conformity Lesson objective: Be able to explain and evaluate how psychologists have investigated different types of conformity.
  • 2. How have psychologists investigated different types of conformity? <ul><li>Compliance – Person conforms with the behaviour or views publically while disagreeing privately. </li></ul><ul><li>This was studied by Asch et al using the laboratory experimental method. </li></ul><ul><li>The research looked at ‘Majority Influence’ </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to page 188 in your text and copy out the Key term definition for this term. </li></ul>
  • 3. Methodological issues (evaluation) <ul><li>Strength: Asch’s research is highly controlled which allows for a cause and effect relationship to be examined and established if it exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation 1: it could be said to lack ecological validity because it is an artificial situation. People are with complete strangers whereas in most everyday situations people are in groups where relationships exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to page 49 and copy out the key term description for Ecological validity . </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation 2: Asch research is situated within a particular historical and cultural context. i.e. 1950’s America. It may not be possible to generalise the findings to other contexts. </li></ul>
  • 4. Ethical issues <ul><li>Fully informed consent – not completely possible – some deception was needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Had the Participants (P’s) known the research was about conformity and not perception it may have altered their behaviour which would make the results invalid. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from Harm – Asch’s P’s experienced some stress and discomfort but it is unlikey that this would have been long term. All the same it was important that the P’s were debriefed thoroughly to ensure they left the study no worse off than when they started. </li></ul>
  • 5. Internalisation <ul><li>This is a deeper level of conformity and involves the person changing both their public view and their private view. This change is likely to be permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of internalisation can be seen to occur via majority and Minority influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to page 190 in your text and copy out the key term description </li></ul>
  • 6. Minority influence <ul><li>Some social psychologists have highlighted the importance of minority influence in bringing about social change. </li></ul><ul><li>What examples of ‘minority influence’ bringing about important positive social change can you think of? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Galileo, suffragettes, Gandhi, Nelson Mandela. </li></ul>
  • 7. How has it been studied? <ul><li>Moscovici 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Calling a Blue Slide Green – Laboratory Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Grps of 6 people were brought together. </li></ul><ul><li>4 were real P’s and 2 were confederates. </li></ul><ul><li>The were shown 36 slides of varying shades of blue and asked to say out loud what the colour was. </li></ul><ul><li>There were two conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. consistent – the confederates called all 36 green </li></ul><ul><li>2. inconsistent – the confederates called 24/36 of the slides green </li></ul><ul><li>Results: in the consistent condition 8% moved across to the minority position, in the inconsistent condition on 1.25% moved across. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion – in order to influence others a minority needs to be consistent. </li></ul>
  • 8. Methodological issues <ul><li>Like Asch’s research this research has been criticised for lacking ‘ecological validity’ </li></ul><ul><li>P’s are aware they are being studied so they may not react as they normally would. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason more recent research has tried to look at minority influence in a ‘real life’ setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Clark 1998/99 used ‘Jury service’ to study what factors might be important in minority influence. </li></ul><ul><li>He used the film ’12 Angry Men’ in this film a lone juror manages to turn around the 11 other jurors who initially believed the accused to be guilty to give a ‘not guilty’ result. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to page 191 and SCRAM! </li></ul>
  • 9. Identification <ul><li>Identification is another type of conformity which involves a person taking on the views and/or behaviour of a group they join or admire. </li></ul><ul><li>It is deeper than compliance as it would involve public and private acceptance – however it is not as deep as Internalisation because the change may only be temporary. </li></ul>
  • 10. Phillip Zimbardo 1971 <ul><li>Stanford Prison Study. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim – to look at how ‘identification with social roles’ could influence some ones behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>24 M P’s were recruited and randomly assigned the role of prisoner or guard. </li></ul><ul><li>The results showed clearly how the ‘roles’ produced very different behaviour from the P’s than they had previously ever shown. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions – It is the situation not the person that is responsible for people’s behaviour. </li></ul>
  • 11. Independent study (homework  ) <ul><li>Read and take some detailed notes on what happened in Zimbardo’s study. </li></ul><ul><li>Read and take note of what happened in the Reicher and Haslam study. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we explain the difference in findings between these two studies. </li></ul><ul><li>You can also look at both these on ‘you tube’ </li></ul>
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