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  • 1. Describing and Evaluating Disorders of the Memory Further Notes on Amnesia and Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2. Describing Disorders of the Memory <ul><li>Define a disorder of the Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Identify two disorders of the Memory (i.e. Amnesia and Alzheimer’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what Amnesia is, how many types of Amnesia are there, which parts of the brain are affected, symptoms and forms of treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what Alzheimer’s is, it’s possible causes, symptoms and forms of treatment. </li></ul>
  • 3. Evaluating Disorders of the Memory <ul><li>Evaluation here involves:- </li></ul><ul><li>Mentioning research/case studies which flesh out the causes of the disorders and/or how the disorders work. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, the research/case studies you choose to mention should reflect any contrasting/conflicting issues revolving around the disorder in question. </li></ul>
  • 4. Essay Structures <ul><li>Option 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Disorder 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Disorder 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Disorder 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Disorder 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Disorder 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Disorder 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Disorder 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Disorder 2 </li></ul>
  • 5. Amnesia-Simplified. <ul><li>When people lose their ability to memorize data they have amnesia . </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesia also refers to an inability to recall information that is stored in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>In simple terms, amnesia is the loss of memory. </li></ul>
  • 6. Types of Amnesia <ul><li>Anterograde Amnesia: A marked impairment in the ability to remember new information learned after the onset of amnesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Reterograde Amnesia: Great difficulty in remembering events from before the onset of amnesia, especially those that occurred shortly beforehand. </li></ul>
  • 7. Causes of Amnesia <ul><li>The causes of amnesia are of two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Organic: Damage to brain structures, especially the diencephalon (sub-cortical), the temporal lobe (cortical region) Drug/Substance abuse and/or accidents are seen to cause such damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Korsakoff’s Syndrome is a form of Organic Amnesia, where the frontal lobe in the brain (thalamus+mamillary nuclei) are also damaged. </li></ul>
  • 8. Causes of Amnesia (contd) <ul><li>2. Functional Amnesia: This is also known as Psychogenic amnesia, as the causes are psychological, i.e. it is not the result of a brain injury but it involves loss of important personal information. </li></ul><ul><li>In one form of psychogenic amnesia, called fugue state, individuals may forget not only their pasts but their very identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the many Hollywood movies depicting this phenomenon, the fugue state is extremely rare in real life. Fugue state normally resolves with time, particularly with the help of therapy. </li></ul>
  • 9. Evaluating Amnesia <ul><li>Aggleton & Brown (1999) made use of evidence obtained from neuro-imaging to propose a new theory. </li></ul><ul><li>They suggested that the distinction between the temporal lobe and the disencephalic amnesiacs is misleading, as both groups have damage to the same functional system. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, they found that the hippocampi-diencephalon region stored both episodic (LT) as well as spatial/temporal (ST) memories. </li></ul>
  • 10. Evaluating Amnesia (Contd) <ul><li>Reed & Squire (1998) reported that different parts of the brain are involved in Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia. </li></ul><ul><li>They studied four amnesiac patients using MRI scans. </li></ul><ul><li>The scans revealed all four patients to have had hippocampal damage, two of which also had temporal lobe damage. </li></ul><ul><li>These two patients had much more severe Retrograde Amnesia than the other two. </li></ul><ul><li>This concluded that Reterograde Amnesia involves the temporal lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Eyesenck, 2001, pp. 205-206. </li></ul>
  • 11. Evaluating Alzheimer’s <ul><li>Research Study 1: Petersen et al (1999), Minnesota, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of 76 consecutively evaluated subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) were compared with 234 healthy subjects and 106 patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Both subjects with MCI and Alzheimer’s patients suffered from similar levels of memory loss. However, the Alzheimer’s patients were seen to suffer from other cognitive impairments too (i.e. perception/language/problem-solving/decision-making/reasoning) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 12. Evaluating Alzheimer’s (contd) <ul><li>Research Study 2: Clipp et al (1995), North Carolina, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective of this study was to assess whether unpaid caregiver time and paid professional time increase as cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease increases. </li></ul><ul><li>The study was conducted over 24 weeks in 17 clinical outpatient sites. </li></ul><ul><li>The results show that Unpaid caregiver time per day increased significantly with cognitive impairment, meeting the baseline according to the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS). </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 13. Advanced Organiser <ul><li>After the Half-Term break, we will be moving on to Psychopathology, particularly focusing on Schizophrenia and Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Homework: Answer any two of the following essay questions:- </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate the Multi-Stored Memory (MSM) (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate Alternatives to the MSM (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate explanations of Forgetting (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate the Role of Emotion on Memory (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate disorders of the Memory (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Deadline: Monday 22 nd February 2010. </li></ul>
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