Slides

PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

Description
1. Describing and Evaluating Disorders of the Memory Further Notes on Amnesia and Alzheimer's Disease 2. Describing Disorders of the Memory…
Categories
Published
of 13
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  • 1. Describing and Evaluating Disorders of the Memory Further Notes on Amnesia and Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2. Describing Disorders of the Memory <ul><li>Define a disorder of the Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Identify two disorders of the Memory (i.e. Amnesia and Alzheimer’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what Amnesia is, how many types of Amnesia are there, which parts of the brain are affected, symptoms and forms of treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what Alzheimer’s is, it’s possible causes, symptoms and forms of treatment. </li></ul>
  • 3. Evaluating Disorders of the Memory <ul><li>Evaluation here involves:- </li></ul><ul><li>Mentioning research/case studies which flesh out the causes of the disorders and/or how the disorders work. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, the research/case studies you choose to mention should reflect any contrasting/conflicting issues revolving around the disorder in question. </li></ul>
  • 4. Essay Structures <ul><li>Option 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Disorder 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Disorder 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Disorder 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Disorder 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Disorder 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Disorder 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Disorder 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Disorder 2 </li></ul>
  • 5. Amnesia-Simplified. <ul><li>When people lose their ability to memorize data they have amnesia . </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesia also refers to an inability to recall information that is stored in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>In simple terms, amnesia is the loss of memory. </li></ul>
  • 6. Types of Amnesia <ul><li>Anterograde Amnesia: A marked impairment in the ability to remember new information learned after the onset of amnesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Reterograde Amnesia: Great difficulty in remembering events from before the onset of amnesia, especially those that occurred shortly beforehand. </li></ul>
  • 7. Causes of Amnesia <ul><li>The causes of amnesia are of two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Organic: Damage to brain structures, especially the diencephalon (sub-cortical), the temporal lobe (cortical region) Drug/Substance abuse and/or accidents are seen to cause such damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Korsakoff’s Syndrome is a form of Organic Amnesia, where the frontal lobe in the brain (thalamus+mamillary nuclei) are also damaged. </li></ul>
  • 8. Causes of Amnesia (contd) <ul><li>2. Functional Amnesia: This is also known as Psychogenic amnesia, as the causes are psychological, i.e. it is not the result of a brain injury but it involves loss of important personal information. </li></ul><ul><li>In one form of psychogenic amnesia, called fugue state, individuals may forget not only their pasts but their very identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the many Hollywood movies depicting this phenomenon, the fugue state is extremely rare in real life. Fugue state normally resolves with time, particularly with the help of therapy. </li></ul>
  • 9. Evaluating Amnesia <ul><li>Aggleton & Brown (1999) made use of evidence obtained from neuro-imaging to propose a new theory. </li></ul><ul><li>They suggested that the distinction between the temporal lobe and the disencephalic amnesiacs is misleading, as both groups have damage to the same functional system. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, they found that the hippocampi-diencephalon region stored both episodic (LT) as well as spatial/temporal (ST) memories. </li></ul>
  • 10. Evaluating Amnesia (Contd) <ul><li>Reed & Squire (1998) reported that different parts of the brain are involved in Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia. </li></ul><ul><li>They studied four amnesiac patients using MRI scans. </li></ul><ul><li>The scans revealed all four patients to have had hippocampal damage, two of which also had temporal lobe damage. </li></ul><ul><li>These two patients had much more severe Retrograde Amnesia than the other two. </li></ul><ul><li>This concluded that Reterograde Amnesia involves the temporal lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Eyesenck, 2001, pp. 205-206. </li></ul>
  • 11. Evaluating Alzheimer’s <ul><li>Research Study 1: Petersen et al (1999), Minnesota, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of 76 consecutively evaluated subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) were compared with 234 healthy subjects and 106 patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Both subjects with MCI and Alzheimer’s patients suffered from similar levels of memory loss. However, the Alzheimer’s patients were seen to suffer from other cognitive impairments too (i.e. perception/language/problem-solving/decision-making/reasoning) </li></ul><ul><li>http://archneur.amaassn.org/cgi/content/abstract/56/3/303 </li></ul>
  • 12. Evaluating Alzheimer’s (contd) <ul><li>Research Study 2: Clipp et al (1995), North Carolina, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective of this study was to assess whether unpaid caregiver time and paid professional time increase as cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease increases. </li></ul><ul><li>The study was conducted over 24 weeks in 17 clinical outpatient sites. </li></ul><ul><li>The results show that Unpaid caregiver time per day increased significantly with cognitive impairment, meeting the baseline according to the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS). </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nature.com/clpt/journal/v58/n2/abs/clpt1995118a.html </li></ul>
  • 13. Advanced Organiser <ul><li>After the Half-Term break, we will be moving on to Psychopathology, particularly focusing on Schizophrenia and Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Homework: Answer any two of the following essay questions:- </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate the Multi-Stored Memory (MSM) (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate Alternatives to the MSM (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate explanations of Forgetting (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate the Role of Emotion on Memory (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and Evaluate disorders of the Memory (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Deadline: Monday 22 nd February 2010. </li></ul>
  • We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks