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  • 1. Name ......................................................................... AS Psychology Group ......................................................................... 1
  • 2. INDUCTION PACK GUIDE: Purpose: This induction pack is designed to: 1. Introduce you to the content and requirements of the A2 Psychology Course. 2. Help you and your tutor to construct an initial Individual Learning Plan (ILP) at the start of the A2 Psychology course. 3. Form the basis of future subject reviews. Content: The induction pack contains a variety of activities from a selection of the topics on units 3 and 4 that were studied by our A2 Psychology students in 2008/9. NB. You MUST complete ALL of the activities in this pack over the summer holiday and hand it in by NO LATER than the end of the first lesson of the A2 Psychology course (the date will be confirmed when you collect your results on results day). You may complete in the activities in any order and use as many sources (e.g. internet, textbooks, journals, class notes, etc) as you like. However, it is VERY important for you to write in YOUR OWN WORDS and REFERENCE the sources that you use (you should have covered this in Key Skills and Tutorials) when completing the activities, as they will be marked by your tutor. You will lose marks if the work is not in your own words and you fail to include references where appropriate. GOOD LUCK AND ENJOY YOUR SUMMER HOLIDAY! LYNDSEY HAYES BOB BUNDY 2
  • 3. CONTENTS PAGE: Induction Pack Guide Page 2 Section 1: Biological Rhythms & Sleep Page 4 Section 2: Eating Behaviour Page 5 Section 3: Intelligence Page 9 Section 4: Aggression Page 10 Section 5: Psychopathology Page 12 Section 6: Anomalistic Psychology Page 14 Section 7: Research Methods Page 15 3
  • 4. SECTION 1: BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP: Sleep Disorders Activity 1: Identify and describe any TWO sleep disorders (2+2 marks) Activity 2: Outline ONE method of treatment for each of your chosen disorders (2+2 marks). Disorder 1 ___________________________________________________ Treatment ___________________________________________________ Disorder 2 ___________________________________________________ Treatment ___________________________________________________ 4
  • 5. SECTION 2: EATING BEHAVIOUR Theories of Eating Disorders: Activity 3: Read the following article and answer the questions in the space provided IN YOUR OWN WORDS: I’m [not] the only fatty in the village Filed under: Applied Psychology, Health and Clinical, Social Psychology Author: Jamie Davies Published: 24th October 2007 Social Comparison Theory and Obesity As we are becoming more aware of the health implications of obesity and what we eat, from the „let some pretentious cow tell you what not to eat‟ programmes to the traffic lights (which are appearing on the front of all my favourite foods telling me exactly how unhealthy what I am eating is) are we actually at a higher risk of obesity if those around us are obese? It was Festinger (1954) who first coined the term social comparison theory with the idea that we view our behaviour in light of those around us. “[Social comparison theory is] the idea that there is a drive within individuals to look to outside images in order to evaluate their own opinions and abilities. These images may be a reference to physical reality or in comparison to other people. People look to the images portrayed by others to be obtainable and realistic, and subsequently, make comparisons among themselves, others and the idealized images.” [quote] Could it be that in those parts of the country where obesity is rife, people are creating a vicious circle by looking at those people around them (who are inevitably „larger‟) and comparing their physical appearance to that? Walking around Hull, which was named (and shamed) as the chubbiest city in the UK back in 2004, it is evident that the average size is more … cuddly … than other places in the country. This conclusion wasn‟t arrived at after laborious study and measurement, it‟s from my personal observations but it‟s an interesting issue never the less. As social beings we compare ourselves to those around us; be it the size of our cars (or the size of anything else come to think of that!) how much we earn; what we wear or even our size. Consider this hypothetical situation: a town of people where more people are getting fat. Other people are going to look around and see that being fat is becoming more of a social norm and less stigmatised, consequently one might start to go the same way or at least think that it‟s okay. The results of a mass longitudinal study in the USA has recently been published which seems to support this idea. Christakis and Fowler (2007) research followed a social network of 12,067 people who were assessed between 1971 and 2003 and found: “The spread of obesity in social networks appears to be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet the relevance of social influence also suggests that it may be possible to harness this same force to slow the spread of obesity. Network phenomena might be exploited to spread positive health behaviours in part because people‟s perceptions of their own risk of illness may 5
  • 6. depend on the people around them. Smoking- and alcohol-cessation programs and weight-loss interventions that provide peer support – that is, that modify the person‟s social network – are more successful than those that do not. People are connected, and so their health is connected.” [quote] We have to ensure that we don‟t over simplify things or propose reductionist theses on this topic; although obesity is easy to define the causes are many, wide spread, and interrelated. Some psychologists put the ball firmly in the social playing field comparing ourselves to those around us; socioeconomic conditions; levels of education. Neuropsychologists however would argue that it‟s a case of under active or fewer neurotransmitters (Volkow argues that people with obesity tend to have fewer D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum that could promote over-eating.) It does seem that our lives, health and weight might be connected at a social level. Think about that the next time you‟re looking around. 1. Which Psychologist coined the term ‘Social Comparison theory’? (1 mark). 2. What is Social Comparison theory? (2 marks) 3. How does Social Comparison theory explain why we become obese? (4 marks) 4. How did the results of Christakis and Fowler’s (2007) longitudinal study support this theory? (4 marks) 5. What are the strengths and weaknesses of this type of research? (6 marks) 6. “We have to ensure that we don’t over simplify things or propose reductionist theses on this topic..” What does Davies mean by the term ‘reductionist’ and why is it important for Psychologists to avoid this issue when explaining obesity and other eating disorders? (3 marks) 6
  • 9. SECTION 3: INTELLIGENCE: Gardener’s View of Intelligence Activity 4: Complete the crossword (1 mark for each correct answer). 9
  • 10. SECTION 4: AGGRESSION: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF AGGRESSION: Activity 5: Read through the description of Bandura’s research and complete the following tasks on a separate sheet of paper: 1. Outline the Social Learning Theory of the aggressive behaviour shown in Bandura’s research. (4 marks-A01). 2. Evaluate the Social Learning Theory of the aggressive behaviour shown in Bandura’s research. (12 marks-A02/3) Bandura’s Original Bobo Doll studies Bandura wanted to expose children to adult models exhibiting either aggressive or nonaggressive behaviors. Then, in a new environment without the adult model, he wanted to observe whether or not the children imitate these adult model aggressive (or nonaggressive) behaviors. A control group was also used, as a comparison, and these children did not have a model Method The subjects studied in this experiment involved 36 boys and 36 girls from the Stanford University Nursery School ranging in age between 3 and 6 (with the average age being 4 years and 4 months). The control group was composed of 24 children. The first experimental group comprised 24 children exposed to aggressive model behavior. The second experimental group comprised 24 children exposed to nonaggressive model behavior. The first and second experimental groups were divided again based on sex. Finally, the experimental groups were divided into groups exposed to same-sex models and opposite-sex models. In this test, there were a total of eight experimental groups and one control group. To avoid skewed results due to the fact that some children were already predisposed to being more aggressive, the experimenter and the teacher (both knew the children well) rated each child based on physical aggression, verbal aggression, and object aggression prior to the experiment. This allowed Bandura to group the children based on average aggression level. The first part of the experiment involved bringing a child and the adult model into a playroom. In the playroom, the child was seated in one corner filled with highly appealing activities such as potato prints and stickers and the adult model was seated in another corner containing a tinker toy set, a mallet, and an inflatable Bobo doll (which is about 5 feet tall). Before leaving the room, the experimenter explained that these particular toys were only for the model to play with. After a minute of playing with the tinker toy set, the aggressive model would attack the Bobo doll by hitting it. For each subject, the aggressive model reacted identically with a sequence of physical violence and verbal violence. The mallet was also used to continually hit the Bobo doll on the head. After a period of about 10 minutes, the experimenter came back into the room, dismissed the adult model, and took the child into another playroom. The nonaggressive model simply played with the 10
  • 11. tinker toys for the entire 10 minute-period. In this situation, the Bobo doll was completely ignored by the model. Following the 10 minute-period with the models, each child was taken into another playroom filled with highly entertaining toys including a fire engine, a jet, a complete doll set with clothes and carriage, and so on. In order to spark anger or frustration in the child, he or she was only allowed to play with the toys for a very short period of time before being told that these toys were reserved for other children. The children were also told that there were toys in the next room they could play with. The final stage of the experiment took place in the last room in which the child was left alone for 20 minutes with a series of aggressive and nonaggressive toys to play with. The Bobo doll, a mallet, two dart guns, and tether ball with a face painted on it were among the aggressive toys to choose from. The nonaggressive toys the children could choose from were a tea set, paper and crayons, a ball, two dolls, cars and trucks, and plastic farm animals. Judges watched each child behind a one-way mirror and evaluated the subject based on various measures of aggressive behavior. Results Bandura found that the children exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to act in physically aggressive ways than those who were not exposed to the aggressive model. For those children exposed to the aggressive model, the number of imitative physical aggressions exhibited by the boys was 38.2 and 12.7 for the girls. The same pattern applied to the instances of imitative verbal aggression exhibited by the child exposed to the aggressive model as opposed to those exposed to the nonaggressive model or no model at all. The number of imitative verbal aggressions exhibited by the boys was 17 times and 15.7 times by the girls. Both the imitative physical and verbal aggression were rarely, if ever, exhibited by the children exposed to the nonaggressive model or no model at all. Boys exhibited more aggression when exposed to aggressive male models than boys exposed to aggressive female models. When exposed to aggressive male models, the number of aggressive instances exhibited by boys averaged 104 compared to 48.4 aggressive instances exhibited by boys exposed to aggressive female models. While the results for the girls show similar findings, the results were less drastic. When exposed to aggressive female models, the number of aggressive instances exhibited by girls averaged 57.7 compared to 36.3 aggressive instances exhibited by girls exposed to aggressive male models. Lastly, the evidence strongly supports that males have a tendency to be more aggressive than females. When all instances of aggression are tallied, males exhibited 270 aggressive instances compared to 128 aggressive instances exhibited by females. In a follow-up study, Bandura (1965) found that when children viewed aggressive behavior and then viewed that behavior being either rewarded or punished that children were less likely to emit aggressive behaviors when they had viewed an adult model being punished for aggressive behavior. Children who saw the model rewarded did not differ in aggressive behaviors from those that saw a model receive no reward. Bandura then offered an incentive for all three groups of children to recall what had happened in the video, and all three groups recalled the modeled aggression at approximately similar levels. 11
  • 12. SECTION 5: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Activity 6: Complete the following tasks in the spaces provided: 1. Watch the Ruby Wax interview with Alison on: 2. Imagine that you are EITHER a Cognitive Psychologist OR a Biological Psychologist and explain how you would treat Alison’s OCD with EITHER CBT OR Drug Therapy (4 marks-A01). 3. Give ONE strength and ONE limitation of your chosen therapy (6 marks-A02/3) . 12
  • 13. Answers to Activity 6: My chosen Treatment is: It will treat Alison’s OCD by: Strength Limitation 13
  • 14. SECTION 6: ANOMALISTIC PSYCHOLOGY: Scientific Fraud Activity 7: Read through the handout, decide whether studies into the following scenarios would be examples of Science or Pseudoscience (false science) and explain why (2 marks for each correct and justified example). 1. Using your horoscope to hypothesise what will happen to you today. 2. Giving an elephant acid to see what the biochemical effects will be. 3. Training a dog to catch a Frisbee. 4. Freud’s claims that our early life and our fixation at certain psychosexual stages will affect our adult behavior. 5. The claim that meditation can help us to de-stress. Characteristics of a Pseudoscience: 1. A tendency to invoke ad hoc hypotheses (predictions made after results are collected). 2. An absence of self-correction, resulting in intellectual stagnation. 3. An emphasis on confirmation rather than refutation. 4. A tendency to place the burden of proof on sceptics of claims 5. Excessive reliance on anecdotal evidence to substantiate claims 6. Evasion of the scrutiny offered by peer review 7. Absence of connectivity with other areas of science 8. Use of impressive-sounding jargon 9. An absence of boundary (separate) conditions PSYA4 Anomalistic Psychology Maria MC (2010) 11 14
  • 15. SECTION 7: PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD: Activity 8: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper: Whilst driving through her local area, a psychologist noticed that boys seemed to play on the road more than girls. She decided to carry out an observational study to test the hypothesis that boys aged 7 to 11 differ from girls in their use of the street for play. A category system was used for classifying use of the street. The two categories were: a) Playing on the road-when a child had at least one foot on the road when playing. b) Playing on the pavement-when a child had both feet on the pavement or on grass verges and entrances to driveways when playing. The psychologist conducted her observations over a six week period for a total of 20 hours. Observations always took place on dry afternoons when children were outside after returning home from school. The observations were carried out at different locations. For each child observed playing and estimated to be within the required age range, the psychologist noted the sex of the child and whether the child was a) on the road or b) on the pavement. Each child was placed in one category only. Table 1: The number of girls and boys aged 7-11 playing on the road and on the pavement. Number playing on the road Number playing on the pavement Boys 132 68 Girls 40 46 0 1 With reference to the data in Table 1, outline what the findings of this investigation seem to show about how boys and girls differ in their use of the street when playing. (2 marks) 0 2 The psychologist assumed that differences between where children play in the street were a direct result of their gender. Suggest two other reasons why boys may play in the road more than girls. (4 marks) 0 3 The psychologist could have used questionnaires with the children, parents and teachers to find out about the children’s use of the street when playing instead of an observation. Explain one advantage and one disadvantage of using questionnaires instead of an observation for this study. (4 marks) 15
  • 16. 0 4 Explain what is meant by the term ‘reliability’ and how the reliability of the results in this study could be improved. (4 marks) 0 5 Having established the pattern of play for boys and girls, the psychologist wanted to explore differences between boys’ and girls’ understanding of the risks associated with playing in the road in a follow up study using a different research method. Imagine that you are the psychologist and are writing up the report of the study. Write an appropriate methods section which includes reasonable detail of the type of Hypothesis chosen and why, the design of the study (including chosen research method, ethical issues, control of extraneous variables and operationalisation of the Hypothesis), participants (sample type), materials and procedure. Make sure that there is enough detail to allow another researcher to carry out this study in the future. (10 marks) Total marks gained from the Induction Pack: 16
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