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1. Revision unit 1 PSYA1<br />COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY,<br />DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND<br />RERSEARCH METHODS<br /> 2. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY…
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  • 1. Revision unit 1 PSYA1<br />COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY,<br />DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND<br />RERSEARCH METHODS<br />
  • 2. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY MEMORY<br />
  • 3. Multi-store model – key features<br />Memory is characterised as a_______________________. The system is divided into a ____________________________and information passes through each stage in a_________________<br />There are __________and __________________________at each stage<br />Transfer of information between stages may require re-coding<br />External stimuli from the environment first enter_____________, where they can be registered for very brief periods of time before decaying or, if given___________, being passed on to the________________<br />Fixed sequence<br />Set of stages<br />sensory memory<br />Flow of information through a system<br />Capacity<br />Attention<br />Duration limitations<br />Short-term store<br />
  • 4. Multi-store model – key features<br />_____contains only the small amount of information that is actually in active use at any one time. Information is usually _____________________at this stage.<br />Memory traces in STM are fragile and can be lost within about ______________, through displacement or decay, unless they are_______________<br />Material that is rehearsed is passed on to the___________________where it can remain for a lifetime, although loss is possible from this store through decay, retrieval failure or interference<br />____________________is assumed to be in terms of meaning, i.e. ______________<br />Long-term store<br />30 seconds<br />Coding in LTM<br />STM<br />Rehearsed <br />Semantic <br />Encoded acoustically<br />
  • 5. Multi-store model of memory<br />LTM, Sensory memory, STM , Environmental stimuli, Maintenance rehearsal, Attention, Elaborative rehearsal, Displacement, decay, Retrieval failure, Inteference<br />
  • 6. Mainly acoustic or visual. Mainly semantic or acoustic or visual. 7+/-2. Unlimited. From minutes to yrs. 30 secs. Only possible immediately, info is retrieved in its original form. Possible any time, can use links with other info to retrieve, info may different each time retrieved.<br />
  • 7. Strengths of the MSM<br />A strength of the MSM is that it distinguishes between short-term and long-term stores in terms of capacity, duration and encoding. Evidence supporting the distinction between STM and LTM comes from case studies of people with brain damage. HM and Clive Wearing appeared to have. …………………………………………….<br /> KF appeared to have……………………………………………………………………………………………<br />Further evidence of separate stores comes from the serial position effect. Murdock (1962) presented participants with a list of words. They were then asked to remember as many words from the list as they could, in any order. Words at the beginning of the list were more likely to be recalled than those in the middle (the __________effect). Similarly, those at the end of the list were also more likely to be recalled than those in the middle (the ___________effect). <br />a. normal STM but severe deficits in LTM. b. an unaffected LTM, but an STM of only one or two items, instead of the expected 7 +/- 2. c. recency. primacy<br />
  • 8. Weaknesses of the MSM<br />Baddeley and Hitch criticised the idea that STM is a unitary store. In the study of KF by Shallice and Warrington (1972), while his STM for things that he heard was good/poor, his memory for visual stimuli was much better/worse. This suggests that there may be separate short-term stores for auditory and visual information.<br />There is also evidence from the case studies of HM and Clive Wearing that LTM is made up of several components, i.e. _________________(which includes _____________and_______________) and____________________.<br />Procedural memory<br />Episodic memory<br />Declarative memory<br />Semantic memory<br />
  • 9. Duration LTM<br />Bahrick et al (1975) tested LTM using _____________ materials.<br />____ _____ pp’s who had left high school 1-48 yrs previously were tested for recall of classmates.<br /><ul><li>Free recall
  • 10. Recognition of photos</li></ul>* Name recognition and phto matching was remarkably high<br /><ul><li>_____ accuracy for name recognition at _______ yrs.
  • 11. _____ accuracy for free recall at ______ yrs.</li></ul>* Supports the idea that LTM can store some types of info for very long time __________ becomes more difficult over time, but does not diminish much.<br />
  • 12. Evaluation of study into duration LTM<br />Ecological validity was high<br /><ul><li>The study used a naturally occuring form of info so avoided the artificiality often present in memory studies
  • 13. The type of info used was very specific
  • 14. Classmates may have high emotional significance, and there is usually great opportunity for rehearsal
  • 15. Conclusions are not generalisable to other types of information.</li></li></ul><li>Study of duration LTM<br />Peterson and Peterson (1959) presented pp’s with ‘trigrams’ and asked them to recall them accurately and in order.<br />Between exposure and recall there was a delay in which they did an interference task. The length of the delay was varied.<br /><ul><li>After 3 secs ______% correct
  • 16. After 6 secs less than ______% correct
  • 17. After 18 secs less than _____% correct
  • 18. Info is lost rapidly from STM, which seems to have a duration of about ____secs if no rehearsal is carried out.</li></li></ul><li>Evaluation of Peterson and Peterson’s study<br />The experiment lacked realism<br /><ul><li>Nonsense trigrams were used to eliminate the effect of meaningfulness
  • 19. However, this is unlikely the info that people typically deal with
  • 20. The use of an interference task is a problem</li></ul>- We cannot tell if the info was subject to decay/displacement (as the Peterson’s claim) or if it was subject to displacement/decay by the task.<br />
  • 21. Encoding in memory<br />Baddeley (1966) asked pp’s to learn one of four word lists:<br /><ul><li>Acoustically similar (__________________ )
  • 22. Acoustically dissimilar
  • 23. Semantically similar (_________________ )
  • 24. Semantically dissimilar
  • 25. pp’s either recalled the list immediately (STM) or after a timed delay (LTM). The type of error made depended on both the type of list and the time delay.
  • 26. When recalling from STM pp’s made more _____________ errors
  • 27. When recalling from LTM pp’s made more _____________ errors.
  • 28. Suggests that STM uses an ___________code whilst LTM uses a _____________one.</li></li></ul><li>Evaluation of study of encoding<br />This relies on lab experiments with the usual problems of ecological validity and mundane realism<br />Also a bit of a simplification e.g. our own experiences suggest that LTM uses other codes besides semantic<br />
  • 29. WORKING MEMORY MODEL<br />The central executive is the most important component.<br />It is involved in problem solving and decision-making.<br />It controls attention and plays a major role in planning and synthesizing information, from the subsidary systems and from LTM.<br />It is flexible and can process information from any modality.<br />It has a limited storage capacity and so can attend to a limited number of things at one time.<br />
  • 30. Phonological loop<br />This stores a limited number of speech-based sounds for brief periods. <br />It consists of the phonological store (_______ ________) which allows acoustically coded items to be stored for a brief period.<br />The articulatory control process (_______ ________) allows subvocal repetition of the items stored in the phonological store. <br />(inner ear) (inner voice) <br />
  • 31. Visuo-spatial scratchpad<br />This stores visual and spatial information ( inner _________ ).<br />It is responsible for setting up and manipulating mental images.<br />It has limited capacity but the limits of the two systems are independent. <br />i.e. it is possible to rehearse a set of digits in the phonological loop while spontaneously making decisions about the spatial layout of a set of letters in the visuo-spatial scratchpad.<br />
  • 32. Episodic buffer<br />This integrates and manipulates material in working memory.<br />It has a limited capacity, depending heavily of executive processing. <br />It can integrate information from different sources into chunks or episodes.<br />One of its important functions is to integrate material from LTM to meet the requirements of working memory. <br />It allows us to go beyond what is already in LTM and combine it in different ways when working memory requires it.<br />
  • 33. Working memory<br />(inner eye)<br />long-term memory<br />
  • 34. STRENGTHS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL<br />Evidence for the central executive. Activity in the CE should increase/decrease when two tasks are performed simultaneously. <br />Using a scan to see which parts of the brain are most active when pp’s read a sentence and recalled the final word in each sentence (dual-task).<br />It was found that the same areas were active for single or dual tasks but there was significantly more/less activation in the dual-task condition.<br />This suggests that increased/decreased attentional demands were reflected in brain activity.<br />
  • 35. Evidence for the phonological loop and articulatory process. – people cope better with short/long words in STM, which shows that the phonological loop holds the amount of info that can be said in ____ secs. Longer/shorter words can’t be rehearsed on the phonological loop as they don’t fit.<br />The word length effect disappears if an articulatory suppression task is used.<br />This ties up the AL so you cannot rehearse the shorter/longer words more quickly.<br />This is evidence for the articulatory process.<br />
  • 36. Match the correct conclusion to the evidence<br />Evidence for the episodic buffer – SC had good learning abilities but was unable to learn word-pairs presented out loud<br />LH performed better on spatial tasks than those involving visual imagery,<br />Suggesting separate visual and spatial systems.<br />Suggesting damage to the PL.<br />
  • 37. WEAKNESSES OF THE WM MODEL<br />What exactly is the central executive? It appears that it allocates resources and is essentially the same as ‘attention’. <br />Some say that this is too_______.<br />The key evidence comes from case studies of individuals who have suffered brain damage.<br />Therefore, you cannot make ‘before and after’ comparisons,<br />So it is not clear whether changes in behaviour are caused/a resultby the damage/of the damage.<br />
  • 38. Strategies for memory improvement – verbal mnemonics<br />Acronym – a word is formed from the initial letters of other words. E.g. ROYGBIV<br />An __________is a poem or sentence where the first letter in each line or word forms the item to be remembered. For example, My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets is used to remember the order of the planets <br />___________involves dividing a long string of information into memorable chunks. Can you remember M S C G N V Q C S E P H D B S C A S ? Would this be easier? M S C G N V Q C S E P H D B S C A S<br />acrostic chunking acronym <br />
  • 39. Visual imagery mnemonics<br />MATCH THE METHOD WITH THE DESCRIPTION<br />The ________________‘Loci is the Latin word for places (e.g. 15 locations in your house) that you can imagine walking through. The number you choose depends on the number of items you need to remember. Convert each item you want to remember into an image and mentally place it in a location. <br />The ___________________is based on the same principles except that the retrieval cues are a set of learned ‘pegs’. One example of this involves learning a set of objects that rhyme with numbers 1 – 20, e.g. one is a gun two is a shoe, three is a tree, etc. after you have learned these, you convert each item you wish to remember into an image and then imagine it interacting with the ‘peg’ word. <br /><ul><li>MATCH THE RETRIEVAL PROCESS WITH THE METHOD
  • 40. To recall a grocery list, you might imagine a loaf of bread on your front door step, eggs smashed on the hall floor, bacon rashers on the kitchen table and so on. When you are ready to recall the grocery list, you imagine walking through the various locations you used. The locations act as retrieval cues because you already know them well.
  • 41. Returning to the grocery list, you could imagine shooting the loaf of bread, walking on eggs and a tree with rashers in its branches. The learned pegs act as retrieval cues. </li></li></ul><li>Evaluation of visual mnemonicspeg-word (P) or loci (L)<br />One advantage of this method is that you recall the list in the correct sequence. P/L<br />However, one disadvantage is that you cannot re-use the route too often, or interference between different lists can occur. P/L<br />It is also difficult to recall an item without going through the entire list in order until you reach the item you want, or to perfect this method if the information is presented too fast. P/L<br />The initial rhyme has to be learned by rote. Due to this, there is more learning than that involved with the ________________mnemonic where the route is already known. P/L<br />When there is more than one list to recall, interference between the lists often occurs. P/L<br />It remains a fairly slow method to use since you have to repeat the rhyme each time. P/L<br />It doesn’t work well when abstract words are to be recalled. P/L<br />It is also difficult to use effectively without extensive practice. P/L<br />
  • 42. HOW MNEMONIC TECHNIQUES WORK<br />Paivio (1965) found that participants could recall __________ ________better than _________ ________. He explained his findings in terms of the dual coding hypothesis. This means that concrete words are encoded twice – once as a verbal code and then, again, as a visual image.<br />Mnemonic techniques make us elaborate the information to be remembered, for example when developing the method of loci. The __________of rehearsal is important (____________rehearsal) but the __________of rehearsal (__________rehearsal) is more important.<br />
  • 43. EVIDENCE FOR ELABORATION<br />Craik and Lockhart (1975) suggested that memory depends on deep and meaningful processing at the point of learning. Craik presented a list of printed words to four different groups of participants and asked each of them to carry out a different task, as follows:<br />Group 1 had to answer a structural question (e.g. )<br />Group 2 had to carry out an acoustic task (e.g. )<br />Group 3 had to carry out a semantic task (e.g. )<br />Group 4 had no particular task to carry out. They were simply asked to try to commit the words to memory.<br />In a later recognition test, people in Group 3 performed significantly better than people in Groups 1 and 2 and at the same level as people in Group 4. <br />This suggests that meaningful engagement with the stimulus material lead to better retention .<br />Craik and Lockhart believed that semantic processing is effective because it activates numerous associations within the LTM – this means that material is easier to retrieve because more retrieval routes have been set up.<br />
  • 44. HOW MNEMONIC TECHNIQUES WORK<br />The importance of ____________cannot be overestimated. Unless we store information in a structured way we are unlikely to be able to locate the information at a later date to retrieve it. <br />The effectiveness of the route method and the pegword system rely on ___________in two ways. They provide links to existing memories, which ensures that the new information is encoded within a systematic framework, and they link information together so that retrieval of one item is likely to lead to the retrieval of another.<br />Bower demonstrated the benefit of___________. Pp’s were given 112 words to learn. If the words were organised into conceptual hierarchies, recall was 2-3 times better than if the words were presented in random order. <br />
  • 45. CONTEXT (CUE)-DEPENDENT LEARNING<br />___________Godden and Baddeley (1975) got underwater divers to learn word lists either on dry land or underwater. They then had to recall the words in each of these places. Results showed that words learnt and recalled in the same context were remembered better. <br />However, Fernandez and Glenberg (1985) have tried to replicate such studies and have never found consistent support for context-dependent effects. In practical terms, it seems useful to learn material in the same place that it will be recalled.<br />____________This suggests that the physiological state a person is in can affect recall. Goodwin et al (1969) examined this effect with alcohol. Participants who hid money while drunk were more likely to remember the hiding place when they were back in their original drunken state. <br />Darley et al supported this effect for marijuana.<br />Context-dependent learning (or forgetting)<br />State-dependent remembering (or forgetting)<br />
  • 46. EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY<br />The witness ___________in LTM details of the event and the persons involved. ____________may be only partial and distorted, as most crimes happen quickly, often at night, and sometimes accompanied by violent action<br />The witness __________the information for a period of time. Memories may be lost or changed during ___________and other activities between encoding and retrieval may interfere with the memory itself<br />The witness __________the memory from storage. What happens during the reconstruction of the memory (e.g. the presence or absence of retrieval cues or the nature of the questioning) may affect its accuracy.<br />retrieves retention<br />retains<br />Encodes Encoding <br />
  • 47. Loftus and Palmer (1974) Misleading information<br />Loftus showed PP’s a film of a car accident and then asked them: ‘How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?’ all the PP’s were asked the same type of question, except that the word ‘hit’ was variously replaced with ‘smashed’, ‘collided’, ‘bumped’ or ‘contacted’.<br />It was found that the word used affected the estimation of speed. ___________ produced the highest estimate, _________ the lowest.<br />Moreover, when PP’s were asked, one week later, if they had seen any broken glass, those in the ‘smashed’ group were more likely to answer ‘yes’ (there was no broken glass)<br />Loftus’ research suggested that EWT was gener
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