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1. Recap the approach & studies Understanding exam questions Test re-sit Marking test 2. You need to be able to outline 2 assumptions of the approach Scientific - Use…
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  • 1. Recap the approach & studies Understanding exam questions Test re-sit Marking test
  • 2. You need to be able to outline 2 assumptions of the approach Scientific - Use of advanced technology and experimental method allows the effects of biology on behaviour to be examined in a controlled way Genetics – all behaviour is genetically pre- determined and so controls all behaviour, so all behaviour is due to nature
  • 3. Simple questions: Outline one assumption of the physiological approach (2) All behaviour is genetically pre-determined and so controls all behaviour, so all behaviour is due to nature More complex questions – Link the assumptions to one area of study from the Physiological approach Describe how the physiological approach explains sleep (4) Sleep is a pre-determine by our genetics as a survival mechanism. During 8 hours of sleep we have at these 5 cycles of sleep. 1 sleep cycle lasts 90 minutes & then REM occurs which is linked most with dreaming as the brain is very active during REM. Stages 1-4 sleep generally have much slower brain waves. Sleep is thought to be the time when the body and the brain repair itself.
  • 4. More complex questions Discuss the strengths and limitations of the physiological approach (12) How to answer the essay 4 paragraphs One strength is that the physiological approach uses highly 2 strengths controlled scientific methods to 2 weaknesses study behaviour. Each paragraph must have: Maguire used MRI scans to look at the differences between taxi and POINT – outlining the non-taxi drivers hippocampi. strength of weakness This means that the conclusions can EXAMPLE – specific example from 1 of the 3 be used to predict a cause and effect between what the brain looks like studies COMMENT – explanation and the type of behaviour a person is capable of producing. of why the strength / weakness is an issue
  • 5. You need to be able to describe the following aspects of each study: Aim You need to be able to Method evaluate each of these sections using issues Participants from your evaluation Procedure booklet (‘Little red Results book’) Conclusion
  • 6. AIM - Investigate the relationship between REM sleep & dreaming PROCEDURES METHOD Avoid alcohol & caffeine on day of exp & Lab exp report to sleep lab Independent measures attached to EEG & EOG IV= Stages of sleep Sleep in a dark / quiet room &woken up DV= Brain wave patterns, eye randomly by door bell & spoke into tape movement & dream content recorder CONCLUSION PARTICIPANTS REM is a fairly valid 9 adults measure of RESULTS 61 nights in total - 351 dreaming. awakenings REM & recall - 152 dreams Dreams occur in during REM & 11 during Opportunity sample real time non-REM Eye movement Woken after 5 min = 46 mimics dream right & woken after 15 min content = 47 right Eye movement matched dream content
  • 7. AIM Understand the function of left & right hemispheres using split-brain patients PARTICIPANTS PROCEDURE 11 split brain patients (due to Used a tachistoscope - allows epilepsy) visual info to be presented to one Control group with intact corpus hemisphere at a time callosum METHOD Cover one eye & focus on a fixed Opportunity sample Quasi experiment point Independent measures Image flashed to either the LVF or IV = split brain or not RVF for 0.1 sec DV= Ability to complete the tasks set using Hands screened off so they could either the left / right visual field or left / right reach for hidden objects hand CONCLUSION RESULTS Left hemisphere controls language Visual - info sent to LVF only recognised if sent to but right hemisphere cannot speak the LVF - RVF had no memory of the image (asphasic) Info to RVF = explained using language But sent to Right hemisphere controls the left LVF say they have seen nothing but can find item side of the body & left hemisphere with the left hand controls the right side of the body Objects in right hand can be named & described Right hemisphere is responsible for but not if in left hand emotion and facial recognition Rude picture in LVF say nothing but blush
  • 8. RESULTS PROCEDURE Increase grey matter of both All tested to ensure generally right & left hippocampi of taxi AIM healthy, no neurological or drivers psychiatric problems Can changes in the brain be Positive correlation between detected in people with MRI scan of non taxi drivers & volume of the right posterior extensive navigational Voxel Based Morphometry – hippocampus and length of experience? create base line for ‘average time spent driving taxis hippocampi’ PARTICIPANTS Taxi driver’s greater volume of MRI & VBM for taxi drivers & posterior hippocampus and 16 male taxi drivers – av. age matched to 16 of the control non-taxi driver’s greater 44 – license more than 1.5 group volume of anterior yrs Expert conducting the analysis hippocampus 50 right handed non taxi did not know which scans driving males belong to taxi drivers & non taxi drivers Volunteer sample CONCLUSION METHOD London taxi drivers had structural changes in the Quasi experiment - hippocampi that were different to non- taxi drivers Independent measures Experience changes the size and structure of brain IV = London taxi driver or areas; more experience at navigation the larger the not hippocampi DV= hippocampi changes
  • 9. Over all: Individual questions about each study 15 in total – 1 for each study All answers must be linked directly to the study E.G. evaluation questions: E.G. description questions: Give an advantage of Outline the aim using this method Outline 1 finding Give an advantage of Outline a conclusion using controls Describe the procedure Describe how the Describe a control used reliability of the task could be checked
  • 10. Describe the sample used in the study on split brain patients by Sperry (2) Sperry used 11 patients who had already had the split brain operation. Each patient has had the operation due to severe epilepsy. (2 marks = 2 things about the sample) Describe one finding of Maguire et al’s study of taxi drivers brains (2) Maguire found that a taxi driver had a larger the posterior hippocampus compared to non-taxi driver who had a larger anterior hippocampus. (2 marks = 2 things about result or a well explained result) Outline a control used by Dement & Kleitman in the study of sleep (2) Dement & Kleitman asked P’s to not drink alcohol or coffee before reporting to the sleep lab so that each P’s would not be under any influences that might affect their sleep. (2 marks = name & then brief explanation of the control)
  • 11. Explain one strength with the technique used by Maguire to collected her data(2) All P’s were tested by the same MRI scanner and so the results were more reliable as the same test was replicated for each of the P’s and so making the data more scientific (2 marks = State the strength & explain it) Explain how the reliability of Dement & kleitmans data was checked (2) Reliability was checked as each P’s was tested more than once so that D&K could take an average of their results so each P’s took part in a test re-test. (2 marks = State the strength & explain it) Give an advantage of the controls used by Sperry(2) Using a control group is a strength as it means that the results collected from the split brain patients can be compared to people with a corpus callosum and so a conclusion can be given(2 marks = State the strength & explain it)
  • 12. Over all: Answer all questions All answers must be linked to one study Outline the aim - 2 marks Describe the sample or procedure & 1 limitation- 6 marks Describe how the data was collected – 6 marks Advantages & disadvantages of data collected / research method used 2 changes & implication of the changes Outline the results / conclusion – 8 marks
  • 13. Describe the sample or procedure & 1 limitation- 6 marks 3 marks for description of sample - numbers, ages, genders, target population 3 marks for limitation (PEC) – State limitation, give example & explain why Describe how the data was collected – 6 marks Detailed explanation of how data was collected Type of data – quantitative / qualitative Task – what P’s had to do – How the DV was measured Numbers, timings etc
  • 14. 2 changes & implication of the changes 4 marks for describing the changes – 2 marks for each change One change would be to use a random sample in terms of collecting the names of all the taxi drivers in London, putting them in alphabetical order and then selecting a sample using a random number table. (2 marks) 4 marks for explaining the implications of the changes – 2 for each change One implication of this method would be that not all the taxi drivers contacted would want to be part of the study and so it would take a lot longer to collect enough London Cabbies but it would make the data more generalisable as the people used would be a better representation of all the taxi drivers in London. (2 marks)
  • 15. Outline the results / conclusion – 8 marks Maguire et al. conclude that people have larger hippocampi sizes due to the more navigational experience they have, so the difference between the taxi drivers and the control group is that the hippocampus is involved with navigational, spatial memory which taxi drivers are using everyday. The right hippocampus size correlated with the time spent as a taxi driver and so this meant Maguire could conclude that the hippocampus changes as a result of increased navigational memory rather than taxi drivers being born with bigger hippocampi. Maguire concluded that the brain has some elasticity as the hippocampi changes size which means that specific structures in the brain can be changed if they are used enough so the brain can be said to have plasticity. Also it can be concluded that it is the right hippocampus and not the left that is linked to navigational experience as only the size of the right hippocampus increased with taxi drivers experience.
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