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1. Movement-produced Stimulation in the Development of Visually Guided Behavior Held and Hein (1963) 2. Background <ul><li>Sensation is the process of…
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  • 1. Movement-produced Stimulation in the Development of Visually Guided Behavior Held and Hein (1963)
  • 2. Background <ul><li>Sensation is the process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to the brain . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell.  Requires sensory receptors . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This information is sent to our brains in raw form where perception comes into play.  </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Background <ul><li>Perception can be defined as the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought to the brain by the senses. </li></ul><ul><li>We are concerned with the development of perception </li></ul>
  • 4. Background <ul><li>The debate between nature and nurture is the basis of most research into the development of perception. </li></ul><ul><li>There are five ways in which psychologists have attempted to study this debate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by studying human babies, or neonates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by studying cataract patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by studying animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by studying different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by studying adaptation </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Background <ul><li>Those who support the nature view point believe that humans are born with all their perceptual functions ready to be used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom up theories of processing: also known as &quot;small chunk&quot; processing, suggests that we perceive our environment by starting with the smaller, more fine details then building upward until we have a solid representation of it in our minds </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Background <ul><li>Those who support the nurture view believe that perceptual abilities have to be learned and adapted to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top down theories of processing: also known as &quot;large chunk&quot; processing, states that we form perceptions of our environment by starting with the larger concepts and then working our way down to the finer details of that concept </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Aim <ul><li>To test whether self produced movements related to changes in stimulation are essential for the development of certain perceptions </li></ul>
  • 8. Method <ul><li>Laboratory experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IV? DV? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yoked control design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the yoked control procedure, the rate of responding by an experimental subject is compared to that by a control subject, but the two subjects are yoked in some meaningful way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this study, the passive kitten receives response-independent feedback while the active kitten receives response-dependent feedback </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Subjects <ul><li>Ten pairs of kittens were used; each pair from a different litter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In each pair there was one ‘active’ (A) and one ‘passive’ (B). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population= Higher mammals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(humans are higher mammals) </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Procedure <ul><li>Each pair was attached to a ‘carousel’ which was driven by the movements of kitten A . </li></ul><ul><li>A could move up, down, toward or away from the center, and rotate clockwise or counterclockwise. </li></ul><ul><li>Kitten B was also attached to the ‘carousel’ but was carried in a basket so it could not control its own movements. It moved exactly the way kitten A moved. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘carousel’ was housed in a cylinder with black, white, and metal-colored vertical strips on the inside walls. </li></ul><ul><li>The center of the ‘carousel was also striped and prevented the kittens from seeing one another. </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>A could move up, down, toward or away from the center, and rotate clockwise or counterclockwise. </li></ul><ul><li>Kitten B was also attached to the ‘carousel’ but was carried in a basket so it could not control its own movements. It moved exactly the way kitten A moved. </li></ul>
  • 12. Procedure <ul><li>None of them received light before the experiment. They were all raised in darkness from birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The point of all of this was that both kittens learned to see the world receiving the same visual stimulation . The only difference between the kittens was that the one moved actively, the other was moved passively. </li></ul>
  • 13. Procedure <ul><li>The pairs spent 3 hours per day in the apparatus for 6 weeks . </li></ul><ul><li>When not in the apparatus all kittens were housed in darkness with their mother and littermates </li></ul>
  • 14. Procedure & Results <ul><li>Tests of the capacity to make visual-spatial discriminations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visually-guided paw placement : the kitten was held by the experimenter with its head and forelegs free and was carried down to the edge of the table. A kitten with normal visual experience extends its paws ready to make contact with the surface. No passive kitten had acquired a visually-guided paw placement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of a visual cliff : the kitten is placed on the central ‘bridge’ from which it can stay still or walk onto either the ‘shallow’ or ‘deep’ side. The kittens with normal visual experience avoided the ‘deep’ side. The passive kittens were crossing at the shallow and deep sides randomly . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blink to an approaching object : the kitten was held still in a standing position and the experimenter brought his hand quickly towards the kitten’s face (stopping just in front of it). A kitten with normal visual experience blinks in response. </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Procedure & Results <ul><li>Tests of visual receptors and their responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual pursuit of a moving object : the kitten was shown the experimenter’s hand moving slowly in front of it. The movement of the kitten’s eyes was recorded. A kitten with normal visual experience follows the movement with its eyes . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupillary reflex to light : A flashlight beam was moved across the eye and the change in pupil size was noted. The pupil of a kitten with normal visual experience shrinks in response . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactual placing response : the kitten was held as in the paw placement test but its front paws were put against the vertical surface of the table. A kitten with normal visual experience responds by moving its paws to the horizontal surface. </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Findings <ul><li>The findings fit the idea that self-produced movement and concurrent visual feedback are essential for the development of visually-guided behavior. </li></ul>
  • 17. Findings <ul><li>Following the 48 hours of freedom in a lighted room the passive kittens were retested. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They displayed normal visually-guided paw-placement and performed all descents to the shallow side of the visual cliff. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Explanation <ul><li>Self-actuated movement is necessary in order to develop the normal visual perception with depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Our movement in the world gives the dimension of depth to mere visual sensations. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement is the key to understanding the vision. </li></ul>
  • 19. Strengths <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience of the kittens was matched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>speed of travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>direction of travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distance travelled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>height from the floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contact with the floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the view of the apparatus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This shows that the differences were due to the kittens visual deficits were due to the fact that its movements were not self-actuated </li></ul>
  • 20. Weaknesses <ul><li>May have merely distorted inborn abilities rather than proved that the abilities were learned ( Construct validity ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Can this generalize to all mammals? Even people? </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics of working with animals </li></ul>
  • 21. Vocabulary <ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Top down processing </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom up processing </li></ul><ul><li>Yoked control design </li></ul><ul><li>Visually guided movement </li></ul>
  • 22. Sources <ul><li>http://nfb.org/legacy/bm/bm02/bm0211/bm021105.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.essortment.com/perceptual-psychology-nativism-vs-empiricism-16772.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://pirate.shu.edu/~hovancjo/exp/kit_caro.htm </li></ul>
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