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1. LT3: Research into Minority Influence – Moscovici (1969) DEFINITION: Minority influence is a form of social influence where a persuasive minority exerts pressure to…
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  • 1. LT3: Research into Minority Influence – Moscovici (1969) DEFINITION: Minority influence is a form of social influence where a persuasive minority exerts pressure to change the attitudes or behaviours of the majority. Minorities are most influential when they appear consistent and principled, e.g. the suffragettes. Outline (A01) Strengths Weaknesses Minority Influence AIM  A second weakness of the research  One strength of the research into minority influence is that it has further empirical support provided by Clark (1994). into minority influence is that it lacks To demonstrate whether a minority can influence a majority of naïve Pps, and thus reverse the usual direction of social influence. Moscovici et al. aimed to determine the conditions He looked at social influence in a jury setting. Student ecological validity. The research set- necessary for this to occur, in particular, the necessity for the minority to be consistent in their opinions. participants were asked to read a transcript of arguments up had no relevance to real life, as it PROCEDURE presented in the film twelve angry men. In the film, all but • took place in a controlled laboratory with The Pps were pre-tested to check for colour blindness. one member of the jury initially believe that the defendant in an artificial task which is not • All Pps were female because he thought they would be more interested in colour! a murder trial is guilty. Slowly, the one juror changes the representative of minority influence in minds of the others because of this consistent and • Altogether there were 32 groups of 6. unwavering conviction about the man’s innocence. In the real life situations. Identifying the colour • experiment some Pps were just given Henry Fonda’s A Lab exp was carried out, in which Pps were randomly allocated to either consistent, inconsistent, or control condition. of a slide is trivial compared to real life arguments to read, whereas others were told how he instances of minority influence such as • Each condition involved 6 Pps being present at the same time: gradually changed the minds of the other jury members. the views of political leaders of decision • 4 naïve Pps (the majority), and 2 confederates (the minority). Social influence occurred in both groups but were strongest making by juries. This suggests that this • where the Pps read the arguments and knew that others Pps were asked to describe the colour of 36 slides, all of which were blue but which varied in brightness due to different research cannot be applied to real life eventually conformed. This suggests that there is wider academic support for minorities influencing the majority. situations. filters. •  A second strength of Moscovici’s research is that In the consistent condition: the 2 confederates described all 36 slides as green.  A third weakness of Moscovici’s it has high reliability. The reason for this is • research is that is lacks population In the inconsistent condition: the 2 confederates described 24 of the 36 slides as green and the remaining 12 slides as blue. because he carried his research out in a controlled validity. Moscovici only used female laboratory where he had complete control over his IV, • Pps in his research, because he thought In the control condition, there were no confederates DV and all extraneous variables. This suggests that they would be more interested in colour • if this research was tested and re-tested the same compared to males. This suggests that Minority influence was measured by the % of naïve Pps who yielded the confederates by calling the blue slide green. results would be achieved. the results gained from Moscovici’s FINDINGS research cannot be applied to the • - In the consistent condition: 8.42% of the Pps answered green and 32% conformed at least once. whole population. • - In the inconsistent condition: 1.2% of the Pps answered green. • - In the control condition: only 0.25% of the Pps answered green. • - Thus, the consistent condition showed the greatest yielding to minority influence. • In a follow up study, both experimental groups were more likely to report ambiguous blue/green slides as green compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS The minority can have influence over the majority, and this minority influence is more effective when the minority is consistent. The fact that minorities are more persuasive when they are consistent has implications for people in leaderships positions who are hoping to influence the majority. Additional A01 and A02 A02 A01 Potential Exam Questions: 1. What is meant by the term ‘minority influence’? (3 marks) 2. Outline findings of research into minority influence (6 marks) 3. Give one difference between majority influence and minority influence (2 marks) 4. Describe the procedures and conclusions of one study of minority influence (6 marks) 5. Describe the aims and give one criticism of one study of minority influence (3+3 marks) 6. Describe and evaluate research into minority influence (18 marks)
  • 2. LT3: Research into Minority Influence – Moscovici (1969) Potential Exam Questions: 1. What is meant by the term ‘minority influence’? (3 marks) 2. Outline findings of research into minority influence (6 marks) 3. Give one difference between majority influence and minority influence (2 marks) 4. Describe the procedures and conclusions of one study of minority influence (6 marks) 5. Describe the aims and give one criticism of one study of minority influence (3+3 marks) 6. Describe and evaluate research into minority influence (18 marks)
  • 3. LT3: Research into Minority Influence – Moscovici (1969) ESSAY PLAN: A01 ESSAY PLAN: A02 Describe and evaluate one … ESSAY PLAN: A01 Describe and evaluate two… Potential Exam Questions: 1. What is meant by the term ‘minority influence’? (3 marks) 2. Outline findings of research into minority influence (6 marks) 3. Give one difference between majority influence and minority influence (2 marks) 4. Describe the procedures and conclusions of one study of minority influence (6 marks) 5. Describe the aims and give one criticism of one study of minority influence (3+3 marks) 6. Describe and evaluate research into minority influence (18 marks)
  • 4. LT3: Research into Minority Influence – Moscovici (1969) Additional A01 and A02 Material You can use the following material below as either A01 or Ao2 material. Remember if you use it as A02 you need to jam sandwich it so it has a top and bottom layer of bread. Potential Exam Questions: 1. What is meant by the term ‘minority influence’? (3 marks) 2. Outline findings of research into minority influence (6 marks) 3. Give one difference between majority influence and minority influence (2 marks) 4. Describe the procedures and conclusions of one study of minority influence (6 marks) 5. Describe the aims and give one criticism of one study of minority influence (3+3 marks) 6. Describe and evaluate research into minority influence (18 marks)
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