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1. Starter: Rorschach test <ul><li>What do you see??? </li></ul> 2. What IS personality? <ul><li>Baron & Byrne (1991): the…
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  • 1. Starter: Rorschach test <ul><li>What do you see??? </li></ul>
  • 2. What IS personality? <ul><li>Baron & Byrne (1991): the combination of those relatively enduring TRAITS which influence behaviour in a predictable way in a variety of situations …... </li></ul><ul><li>However, Personality is a hypothetical construct! We cannot observe only infer. </li></ul>
  • 3. Individual Approach Thigpen and Cleckley
  • 4. Background <ul><li>2 types of illness: Psychoses are problems relating to reality (schizophrenia), Neuroses are problems relating to anxiety where the person is aware of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Personality Disorder: Jekyll and Hyde existence. Different personalities that are either one or the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Fugue states: other personalities have amnesia when another personality is in control! (Fight club) </li></ul>
  • 5. Aim <ul><li>Provide an account of an individual considered to have MPD. This was necessary as whilst a well known illness there was little or no explanation of the illness. </li></ul>
  • 6. How the data was collected <ul><li>Sample: 25 year old female patient known as Eve White. Had been referred to Thigpen because she was suffering from severe blinding headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Case study using psychotheraputic treatment interviews and occasional hypnosis of Eve White. Family members also gave self reports to check some of Eve’s stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Eve also undertook a number of psychometric tests including IQ, memory ability and projection tests including the Rorschach ink blot test </li></ul><ul><li>Finally an EEG was conducted to determine any physical differences during the therapy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 7. Findings <ul><li>Eve White did not have any obvious abnormal social problems to justify stress </li></ul><ul><li>She was meticulous truthful and matter of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Eve took a trip that she had no memory of and was hypnotised. A few days later a letter from eve was given to Thigpen from Eve where the last paragraph was not of Eve’s writing. </li></ul><ul><li>When she was questioned about this she thought she had destroyed the letter and questioned if hearing voices was insane (neurosis behaviour for psychosis problem) </li></ul><ul><li>After signs of pain a new personality appeared: Eve Black </li></ul>
  • 8. Findings 2 <ul><li>Eve White was serious and hard working, IQ of 110, and projection tests suggesting she had a repressive personality </li></ul><ul><li>Eve Black was vain and playful, IQ of 104, and regressive personality </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy was problematic. Both personalities became aware of each other. Eve White controlled EB appearances until 8 months when a new personality appeared, Jane. </li></ul><ul><li>Jane was more serious than EB but more interesting than EW. She was aware of both personalities and seemed to have some control over both personalities. EEG showed small differences in brain wave patterns. </li></ul>
  • 9. Conclusions <ul><li>Jane was believed to be the best option for a fully integrated personality. Thigpen did not complete this task </li></ul><ul><li>There was no explanation why or how MPD occurred. It was only observed and recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical evidence did not completely support the finding that there were 3 separate personalities. Projection tests and handwriting analysis suggested superficial differences but they were still from the same individual. This is not 3 separate individualities but one behaving differently. </li></ul>
  • 10. The BIOLOGICAL basis for personality <ul><li>EYSENCK.. Biological differences in nervous systems </li></ul><ul><li>Extroverts have STRONG nervous systems which tend to DAMP down incoming sensory data - thus they are UNDER AROUSED and need to ‘arouse themselves’ with activity’ </li></ul><ul><li>Introverts have SENSITIVE nervous systems which AMPLIFY incoming sensory data, thus they need to ‘reduce sensory input’... </li></ul>
  • 11. Freud ‘s psychodynamic theory of personality <ul><li>The tripartite structure of personality </li></ul><ul><li>ID (Eve Black?) </li></ul><ul><li>EGO (Jane?) </li></ul><ul><li>SUPEREGO (Eve White?) </li></ul>
  • 12. Another strange case <ul><li>The multiple personalities of SYBIL </li></ul><ul><li>(see SCHREIBER 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Double digit personalities!!! </li></ul>
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