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1. The Working Memory Model 2. By the end of this lesson, you will know how to;- ã 1) Describe the Working Memory Model and understand the functions and limitations of…
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  • 1. The Working Memory Model
  • 2. By the end of this lesson, you will know how to;- • 1) Describe the Working Memory Model and understand the functions and limitations of its components. • 2) Describe and evaluate the evidence on which the working memory model is based on. • 3) Understand the strengths and weaknesses of the model.
  • 3. The Working Memory Model (WMM) • In the early 1970s, there was huge interest in the topic of STM and many experimental techniques were devised to investigate it. • The research became highly theoretical and laboratory based with little apparent relevance for everyday life. • In addition, it was becoming clear that traditional multi-store models could not account for some of the things we know about memory.
  • 4. Baddeley and Hitch contested the idea that STM memory being a unitary ( being one store that’s not divided) store as proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin.
  • 5. STM has more than 1 store – Baddeley & Hitch • Can you recall the duration, encoding and capacity features of the STM store as proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin?
  • 6. There is more than 1... • Baddeley and Hitch indicated that there are more than 1 components in the STM. • To support this idea they used a DUAL TASK TECHNIQUE.
  • 7. Activity • Read a page in a book you have not read before. • Choose a page...lets think...109 in AQA text. • You need to do this by yourself. • Do you understand what has been written • Could you explain what you have read to your partner?
  • 8. Activity (cont..d) • Now turn to a different page and try to read it while saying “the, the, the” ALOUD repeatedly. • Did you have difficulty in understanding the text? • Did your reading rate reduce? • Can you explain what you have read to someone else? • If you can, how would you explain this?
  • 9. What did Baddeley and Hitch say? • Baddeley and Hitch concluded that the short term memory must have more than one component and must be involved in processes other than simple storage, e.g. reasoning, understanding and learning. • They envisaged STM as a sort of workspace where a variety of operations should be carried out on both old and new memories. • Crucially for the model, they concluded that two tasks can be carried out simultaneously in STM provided that they are being dealt with by different parts of the memory system.
  • 10. The components of the WMM
  • 11. 1. Central Executive Can you remember where this character is from?
  • 12. 1. Central Executive (write notes on page 71) • This supervisory component has overall control. • Has limited capacity • Responsibility for a range of important control processes; • setting task goals, • monitoring & correcting errors, • starting the rehearsal process, • switching attention between tasks, • retrieving process from LTM, • co-ordinating the activity needed to carry out more than one processing task at a time.
  • 13. Central Executive • This core component is supported by two “slave” systems, which can be used as STORAGE systems • Thereby, freeing up some of its own capacity to deal with more demanding information-processing tasks. • The slave systems have separate responsibilities and work independently of one another.
  • 14. Phonological Loop Component (sometimes called articulatory- phonological loop) Has two stores Articulatory Control System Phonological Store “inner voice” “inner ear”
  • 15. 1. Articulatory Control System • Words here can be maintained by subvocal repetition. • This part of the store is concerned with speech production. • Limited capacity • Temporary storage system
  • 16. 2. Phonological store • Temporary storage system for holding verbal information in a speech based form. • Concerned with speech perception. • Limited capacity • Sounds of items.
  • 17. 3. Visuospatial Sketchpad (sometimes called a scratchpad) • This is specialised for spatial and/or visual coding • A kind of writing pad for visual data • Limited capacity • Temporary memory “Inner Eye” system
  • 18. Evidence for Phonological Loop (Baddeley, Thomson & Buchanan, 1975) • The researchers gave visual presentations of word lists for very brief exposures and then asked them to write down.
  • 19. Lab Experiment – the conditions Condition 1 – lists consisted of 5 Condition 2 – lists consisted of familiar 1 syllable words polysyllabic words • Harm • Organisation • Wit • University • Twice • Association These were all presented in picture format
  • 20. Results • Average correct recall over several trials showed a marked superiority for the short words. • They called this the “word length effect” • Concluded that the capacity of the loop is determined by the length of times it takes to say words rather than by number of items. • They estimated this time to be 1.5 seconds.
  • 21. Evidence for visuo-spatial sketchpad (Shepard and Feng, 1972) • Used shapes such as opposite. • P’s were asked to imagine folding these flat shapes to form a cube with the grey area as a base and then decide whether in the finished cube, the arrows would meet head on.
  • 22. Results • They found that the time taken to make the decision was systematically related to the number of folds that would have been required if the participants had actually been doing the folding.
  • 23. This study suggests... • Visual images work in a very similar ways to real-life perception.
  • 24. Research evidence for Central Executive • Has a critical role in attention, planning and co-ordination and is the most important and most flexible component of WMM. Baddeley accepts the complexity “makes it considerably harder to Much Less research on investigate”. the central executive
  • 25. Plenary Activity • On page 60 in your packs  can you fill in the blanks using the following words;- • Active processing • Articulatory, Phonological, loop • Visuo-spatial • Central • Executive • Baddeley • Hitch
  • 26. Homework • Baddeley, Thomson and Buchanan (1975)Using page 21 in your textbook fill in the blank spaces on page 72-73 in your packs. • Shepard and Feng (1972) Using page 22 in your textbook fill in blank space on page 78 in your packs.
  • 27. Strengths of WMM • This model has been extremely influential and most cognitive psychologists now use working memory in preference to the using the STM. • It is a much more plausible model than the multi-store because it explains STM in terms of both temporary storage and active processing.
  • 28. Strengths of the WMM • It also incorporates verbal rehearsal as just one optional process within the articulatory loop instead of being the sole means of transferring information as suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin. • It is possible to apply the model to previous research data, e.g. Acoustic confusion effect, digit span, etc and reinterpret it within the framework of working memory.
  • 29. Strengths of WMM • It can also account for findings that are difficult for MSMs to explain, e.g. Some of the selective memory deficits have been found in brain-damaged patients such as KF, CW. • The WMM can account for individual differences in memory processes. • WMM applied to various real life settings. Because there is a high correlation between working memory span and performance on various tasks, it has been suggested that working memory capacity might be used as a measure of suitability for certain jobs. E.g. Use as a recruitment tool for the US air force (Kyllonen and Christal, 1990).
  • 30. Weaknesses of WMM • Working memory models do not offer a complete understanding of how memory works. • The exact role played by the central executive remains slightly unclear and other researchers (Shah & Myake, 1996) have questioned whether it can be a single component or whether there are separate verbal and spatial working memory systems.
  • 31. Weaknesses of WMM • Cowan (1998) has suggested that, in order to explain abilities such as text comprehension, working memory should also encompass some kind of long-term memory activation. • Berz (1995) has also criticised the model for failing to account for musical memory because we are able to listen to instrumental music without impairing performance on other acoustic tasks.
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