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1. Rebecca Blyth2009Unit G543 – Options in Applied Psychology; Psychology of EducationPsychology and Education go well together – for those occupied by psychology,…
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  • 1. Rebecca Blyth2009Unit G543 – Options in Applied Psychology; Psychology of EducationPsychology and Education go well together – for those occupied by psychology, classrooms and school settings offer a rich environment in which to apply psychological theories and ideas. For those working in education psychology provides a valuable source of knowledge to understand best practice. This topic covers four areas; Teaching and Learning; Student Participation; The Social World of Teaching and Learning; and Enabling Learning: Dealing with Diversity.OCR NEW SPECIFICATIONUNIT G543 Options in Applied PsychologyPsychology of Education<br />Psychology of Education<br />Candidates should;<br /><ul><li>• be able to describe and evaluate the areas below in the light of psychological theories, studies and evidence;
  • 2. • always seek to apply psychological methods, perspectives and issues;
  • 3. • actively seek to apply theory and evidence to the improvement of real-life events and situations;
  • 4. • explore social, moral, cultural and spiritual issues where applicable;
  • 5. • consider ways in which the core areas of psychology (cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, physiological psychology, social psychology and the psychology of individual differences), studied in the AS course, can inform our understanding of psychology and education.
  • 6. OCR Specification – www.OCR.org.uk</li></ul>Teaching and learning To discuss teaching and learning processes. Theories of knowledge acquisition • Stage theories (eg Piaget or Bruner); • Social construction theories (zone of proximal development, Vygotsky); • Behaviourist models linking stimulus and response (Watson, Skinner). Personal approaches to learning • Variations on learning strategies (eg Curry’s onion model); • Differences in cognitive styles (eg Riding & Raynor, 1999); • Theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner).Personal approaches to teaching • Behaviourist use of objectives and monitoring of tasks (eg Ausubel’s advanced organisers); • Cognitive approaches of discovery learning (eg Bruner’s spiral curriculum); • Social constructionist ‘co-operative learning’ (Vygotsky). Student participation Discuss ways of encouraging appropriate educational behaviours. Theories of motivation • Motivation as an intrinsic or extrinsic process (eg Claxton); consider psychodynamic (drive) theories (eg Freud’s personalitytheory and defence mechanisms); • The humanist (needs) theories (eg Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs); • Cognitive (attribution) theories (eg Weiner’s attribution theory). <br />The social world of teaching and learning To recognise the importance of relationships during the process of teaching and learning. Personal and social development • Developmental stages such as industry/inferiority (eg Erikson’s 8-stage theory); • Humanist applications of acceptance and approval to learning (eg Rogers, 1977); • Moral development and the implications for social rules (eg Kohlberg). Student–student social interactions • Importance related to empathy and moral development (eg Gilligan 1982); • Friendships/bullying and academic success (eg Hartup 1989); • Anti-bullying strategies (eg Tatum & Herbert 1992).Student–teacher social interactions • Comparison of teacher/student communications between what is sent and what is received (eg Flander’s interaction analysis); • Transmission of teacher expectations of students (eg Brophy & Good, 1974); • Types and demands of questions used by teachers for primary and secondary pupils (Galton, 1999). Enabling learning: dealing with diversity Consider how to enable all students to reach their educational potential. Dealing with additional needs • Individual support (eg Bloom, 1984); • Consideration of the implications of ability grouping (including provision for gifted students); most evidence (Sukhnandan & Lee, 1998) seems to suggest little outcome gain from grouping by ability; • The provision of remedial support such as reading recovery and various forms of differentiation. <br />Educational Psychology Studies Checklist<br />1. Teaching and learning <br />278130049530Theories of knowledge acquisition<br /><ul><li>Stage theories (Piaget or Bruner, 1966)
  • 7. Social construction theories (Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), Vygotsky)
  • 8. Behaviourist models linking stimulus and response (Watson and Raynor, 1920; Skinner 1948) </li></ul>Personal approaches to learning<br /><ul><li>Variations on learning strategies (Curry’s onion model, 1983)
  • 9. Differences in cognitive styles (Riding and Raynor, 1998)
  • 10. Theory of multiple intelligences (Gardener, 1993)</li></ul>Personal approaches to teaching<br /><ul><li>Behaviourist use of objectives and monitoring of tasks (Ausebel, 1977; Krathwohl, 2002)
  • 11. Cognitive approaches of discovery learning (Bruner’s spiral curriculum, 1960)
  • 12. Social constructivism – cooperative learning and scaffolding (Wood et al., 1976)</li></ul>2. Student Participation<br />Theories of motivation<br /><ul><li>-14287569215Intrinsic/extrinsic motivation (Claxton, 1992); psychodynamic theories (Freud, 1961)
  • 13. Humanist ‘needs’ theories (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, 1954)
  • 14. Cognitive attribution of theory (Weiner, 2000)</li></ul>Encouraging educational engagement<br /><ul><li>The importance of play (Schweihart, 2000)
  • 15. The emotional nature of learning (Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Goleman, 1996; Petrides et al., 2004)
  • 16. The implications of ability grouping (Sukhnandan & Lee, 1998)</li></ul>Student beliefs and expectations<br /><ul><li>Social roles and academic success (Riley, 1995)
  • 17. Learned helplessness (Seligman, 1975)
  • 18. Developing positive self-esteem (Maslow, 1954; Dweck, 2004)</li></ul>3. The Social World of Teaching and Learning<br />Personal and social development<br /><ul><li>Developmental stages (Erikson’s eight-stage theory)
  • 19. The need for acceptance and approval (Rogers & Freiberg, 1994)
  • 20. Moral Development (Kohlberg, 1981)</li></ul>5715042545Student-Student social interactions<br /><ul><li>Empathy and morality (Gilligan, 1992)
  • 21. Friendships/bullying and academic success (Hartup, 1989; Demetrio et al., 2000)
  • 22. Anti-bullying strategies (Tatum and Herbert, 1992; Smith and Shu, 2000)</li></ul>Student-teacher social interactions<br /><ul><li>Comparison of teacher/student communications (Flanders interaction analysis, 1970)
  • 23. Teacher expectations of students (Brophy & Good, 1974; Rubie-Davies et al., 2006)
  • 24. Types of questions and demands used by teachers (Galton et al., 1999)</li></ul>2962275387354. Enabling Learning; Dealing with Diversity<br />Dealing with additional needs <br /><ul><li>Individual support (Bloom, 1984)
  • 25. Ability grouping (Sukhnandan & Lee, 1998; Freeman, 1997)
  • 26. Remedial support (Reading Recovery, Clay, 1985)</li></ul>“To ensure a fair selection you all get the same test. You must all climb that tree.”Enabling minority ethnic groups<br /><ul><li>Inter-group tasks (Aronson et al., 1978; Strand & Demie, 2005)
  • 27. Role models (Klein, 1996; Demie et al., 2006)
  • 28. Positive support (Mac an Ghaill, 1988; DfES, 2007)</li></ul>Enabling Genders<br /><ul><li>Gender differences in educational achievement (Arnot et al., 1996; Strand et al., 2006)
  • 29. Biological differences in brain structure (Bee, 2000; Solms & Turnbull, 2002)
  • 30. Strategies for enabling the learning of boys and girls (Younger and Warrington, 2005)</li></ul>Teaching and Learning<br />We’ve all been learning, all our lives. We are very used to it and often don’t notice it happening!<br />Learning, that we do notice, usually takes place within educational settings – like schools, college and training in employment.<br />Describe how you think you learnt to swim (or ride a bike!)Tasks<br />Describe how you think you learnt to do “bus stop” division at school.<br />Think about the two examples you have just given. What was the same in both cases? What was different?<br />Your learning strategiesYour friends learning strategiesComparing learning strategies – Make a list here of all the things you do to help you to revise or learn something new. Now copy out your neighbours list into the 2nd box.<br />3990975143510<br />Compare the lists – Are they similar? Does your friend have strategies you would like to try? Who do you think learns the best? Why?<br />I think….Because….<br />-1905084772540062150If you were asked to teach a class of 1st year psychology students about the Baron-Cohen “Eyes Task” how would you do it?<br />How did your neighbour decide to teach the Core Study?All teachers are different and it is not surprising that they teach in different ways! <br />Many factors need to be considered when thinking about the complex process of teaching and learning. This section is divided into three broad areas of study. These are;<br /><ul><li>Theories of knowledge acquisition – a number of theories regarding individual intellectual development, focussed on how knowledge is gained. Considers interaction with the external environment, stage theories and expert teachers.
  • 31. Personal approaches to learning – variety of theories that offer insight into the diversity of how individuals go about learning. There are as many different ways of learning as there are personality types! These theories help us to understand why different learning styles exist and how we can use this knowledge to improve learning.
  • 32. Personal approaches to teaching – approaches to teaching can often relate back to theories of knowledge acquisition. Think about organisation of learning environments, planning of curriculum and language used in guidance.</li></ul>1. Theories of Knowledge Acquisition <br />1.1 Stage theories<br />-428625380365Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development<br />Stage 2 – Pre-operationalFrom 18months to about 7 years, symbols and general rules become important. “If I say yum yum, I get some warm mushy stuff.” Stage 1 – Sensori-MotorFrom birth to about 18months, children live via senses. “My food is warm and mushy – I am happy.”These 4 stages of knowledge acquisition or “cognitive development” are the most recognized in education and educational psychology. Piaget was researching children’s mental processes in the early 1920’s, he worked with Binet on intelligence testing and became fascinated with two key things; firstly, that children of different ages performed at different levels; and secondly, that their reasoning was different to that of adults. He was interesting in “knowing how we know” (Epistemology).<br />Stage 3 – Concrete OperationalAge 7 – 12 years, thought experiments become possible but still limited by present world.“I like custard, but what if I put it with cake?”Piaget’s contructivist theory was that children initially have existing understandings (schemas) of the world and that they acquire knowledge by changing their existing schema’s to make sense of the new experiences. He called this accommodation. <br />Stage4– Formal OperationalAge 12 years +, thoughts are governed by logical reasoning; cause & effect are considered.Piaget’s research, (see Samuel and Bryant core study), lead him to discover that children’s development occurred in four crude stages outlined below. Piaget’s research was criticised due to his lack of rigorous measures, ethnocentric tasks, and limited generalisability to children from different backgrounds and cultures. He also disregards the intricate social aspect of knowledge acquisition. <br />Imagine yourself at age 7 - What did you think happened to the sun during night?How does this differ from what you think now?How does your “young schema” compare to your “present schema”?<br />KEY TERMINOLOGYContructivist Theory each individual actively constructs their knowledge from their own experience.Epistemology the study of how we know what we know.Classical Conditioning when a natural stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus often enough to cause the neutral stimulus to elicit the natural response (See Pavlov’s Dogs)Unconditional Stimulus A stimulus that elicits an innate response e.g. food elicits salivation.OCR Psychology for A2 - Heinemann<br />Bruner’s Modes of Representation<br />Bruner (1966) presented three stages or modes of representation necessary for knowledge acquisition. These differ from Piaget’s stages in that they are not defined by precise age ranges. Bruner highlights that children’s intellectual development is dependant on progressing through the three stages; and that the three stages exist throughout an individual’s life. <br />The three stages are called representations because they represent the rules that enable the individual to understand the world.<br />3 further differences to the work of Piaget are;<br /><ul><li>Bruner considers the social world of the child and how this causes different life experiences and therefore, the development of a unique set of rule for each child.
  • 33. Bruner recognises that intellectual development is a result of interacting with the external environment and is not limited to biologically determined age stages.
  • 34. Bruner recognises that language assists in intellectual development, as opposed to being a result of development.</li></ul>-542925-123825Bruner’s Modes of Representation<br />Some people do not see these as stages at all because they are flexible and life-long. They are still worth knowing about because there are still distinct differences between how children of different ages intellectually develop.<br />TASKS<br />Use the table to note down the similarities and differences between Bruner and Piaget.<br />SimilaritiesDifferences<br />19050-200025<br />Imagine how you learnt to ride a bike – How would Piaget and Bruner explain this? <br />1.2 Social Construction Theories<br />As you read through this section underline in red anything which is similar between Vygotsky’s ideas and the ideas of Piaget and Bruner previously studied, underline in black anything which is different.<br />Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)<br />Vygotsky developed his socio-cultural (involves both societal and cultural influences on learning) theory of ZPD at around the same time as Piaget was developing his ideas. Both had an equal influence on Bruner.<br />Vygotsky was influenced by Marxism and the importance of the role of the individual within a group. Stalin suppressed Vygotsky’s work as it was considered anti-Soviet (it highlighted individual differences) thus preventing the West from seeing it until the 1960’s when “Thought and Language (1962)” was finally published. Bruner even wrote the forward in it.<br />TaskWhat are the alternative words for these English and American things? Why do we have different words for things?EnglishAmericanjumperpantstapThe ZPD is the most influential idea that Vygotsky presented. It has become one of the most influential ideas within education (I myself learnt about it during teacher training!). Vygotsky’s premise was that knowledge acquisition and cognitive development was attributed to interaction with others in a social world where language is the foremost means of communication. <br />He suggested that children interacted with the environment and adults to help them make sense of their experiences. Known as “Social Construction”, the child interacts with the external world, via others, making sense of it through language, which has cultural, historical meanings.<br />-381003175From this understanding of the implications of social interactions, Vygotsky devised the ZPD, and defined it as; the difference in what a child can achieve alone, compared to what they could achieve when given help.<br />There are different ways to picture this idea. Two of which are included left and below.<br />238125273050<br />Vygotsky found that children who were given advice and suggestions when they got stuck achieved much more than expected compared to children not given any assistance. “Without verbal assistance, the children could only show what they could do, but with assistance, they could show what they were capable of,” (Bainbridge et al., 2008). This difference is the Zone of Proximal Development. If a child has a bigger ZPD they easier they will find learning; the smaller the ZPD, the harder they will find learning.<br />Tasks<br />Is all adult help actually helpful?<br />Is learning always a case of telling people how to do something?<br />Is this reductionist? How?<br />Work in a pair to answer the following questions: <br /><ul><li>How does Vygotsky link language to learning?
  • 35. Why is this considered a socio-cultural theory?
  • 36. How does Vygotsky describe cognitive development as being socially constructed?</li></ul>Decide if you want to argue on the side of Piaget/Bruner or on the side of Vygotsky. Take some notes down, pros and cons for your chosen side, ready for the debate.<br />1.3 Behaviourist Models<br />Watson and Behaviourism<br />Watson was one of the first “Behaviourist”. Behaviourist believed that the environment itself has an impact on human behaviour and favoured observation of behaviour as an experimental method free from the subjective views of the researcher. The behaviourists completely rejected idea that behaviour could be understood by finding out what individuals thought of their own behaviour. Watson’s main interest was in the behavioural response to an environmental stimulus (See Little Albert). This is called “Classical Conditioning” because it is to do with reflex or automatic, uncontrollable responses.<br />Watson and Raynor – Conditional Emotional Reaction<br />The study on “Little Albert” suggests that complex behaviours, such as emotional responses, are learned responses to environmental stimuli. Watson’s views are often viewed as objectionable; he thought that he could train a child to become anything from a beggar, to a judge!<br />Tasks<br />His ideas are also reductionist. Why?<br />What are the weaknesses of the study?<br />Little Albert – Watson (Summary)Aim; to see if is possible to induce fear of a previously unfeared object through classical conditional and to see if the fear could be transferred to other similar objects.Method; a case-study undertaken on one child in controlled laboratory conditions.Participants; Little Albert had no fearful reactions to a rat, a rabbit, a dog, a monkey, a mask with hair or cotton wool. When Albert was 8 months old, he reacted violently to a test where a suspended steel bar was hit with a hammer. His response was used to condition Albert to fear rats.Design; a single subject design, behaviours measured were Albert’s reaction to stimuli before and after the conditioning.Procedure; Session 1-When Albert was presented with a rat in the laboratory, a steel bar was struck. He jumped and fe
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