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1. Evaluation of the working memory model<br />I do hope my visuo-spatial sketchpad is working, or I’ll never find my way back from this beach!!!<br…
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  • 1. Evaluation of the working memory model<br />I do hope my visuo-spatial sketchpad is working, or I’ll never find my way back from this beach!!!<br />1<br />
  • 2. Use of same component<br /><ul><li>Hitch & Baddeley (74) found that when two simultaneously performed tasks use the same component of working memory, performance on those tasks suffers
  • 3. They also found that when two tasks involve different parts of working memory performance on those tasks does not suffer
  • 4. These findings support the existence of the qualitatively different sub-components of working memory as proposed by the model</li></ul>2<br />
  • 5. Patients with brain damage<br /><ul><li>There is evidence from cognitive-neurological studies on patients with brain damage which supports the working memory model
  • 6. Shallice & Warrington (70) found that patient KF had difficulties recalling auditory information from STM but not visual information
  • 7. This suggests that his damage mainly affected the phonological loop as he appeared to be able to use the visuo-spatial sketch pad
  • 8. This also supports the proposed idea of multiple components to STM, as proposed by the working memory model</li></ul>3<br />
  • 9. Patients with brain damage contd.<br /><ul><li>However there are a number of limitations associated with studies of patients with brain damage
  • 10. Most studies of brain damage are case studies; whilst case studies provide a lot of detail, the subjects may have unique characteristics which mean that they are not representative of anyone else except themselves
  • 11. It is also not possible to make before and after comparisons of their memory deficits
  • 12. The trauma of the brain injury may have resulted in numerous changes in behaviour
  • 13. These limitations undermine the extent to which we can rely on studies of patients with brain damage to evaluate the working memory model </li></ul>4<br />
  • 14. fMRI scans<br />Bunge et al (2000) found that when Ps were doing a dual-task, fMRI scans showed significantly more activation<br />This shows that the increased attentional demands of the two simultaneous tasks increased brain activity<br />This provides support for the proposed role of the central executive as the aspect which directs attention and allocates resources<br />5<br />
  • 15. Clarification of the central executive?<br /><ul><li>It could be argued that the role of the CE is a little vague
  • 16. What exactly is ‘directing attention’ and ‘allocating resources’?
  • 17. It is possible that the CE, like the other aspects of the model, is also not unitary
  • 18. Eslinger & Damasio (1985)’s patient EVR performed well on reasoning tasks but not on problem-solving tasks
  • 19. given that both tasks would involve the CE, this suggests that the CE has sub-components involved with each task respectively</li></ul>6<br />
  • 20. Application <br />The insights from the working memory model can be used in psychopathology<br />Park et al (1999) has suggested that working memory deficits can be used to differentiate between ‘normal’ patients, and those with schizophrenia<br />If this is true, it could be used as a diagnostic tool<br />However, it could be that working memory deficits occur in other forms of psychopathology also (eg. anxiety disorders), and that working memory abnormalities may not necessarily indicate schizophrenia but a more generic possibility of mental illness<br />7<br />
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