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1. Defining & Explaining Abnormality Definitions Strengths & Limitations 2. Definitions you need to be able to explain and evaluate. <ul><li>Deviation…
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  • 1. Defining & Explaining Abnormality Definitions Strengths & Limitations
  • 2. Definitions you need to be able to explain and evaluate. <ul><li>Deviation from social norms </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to function adequately </li></ul><ul><li>Deviation from ideal mental health </li></ul>
  • 3. DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS <ul><li>Social norms are a set of rules for behaviour based on a set of moral and conventional standards within society. </li></ul><ul><li>They are judged by the dominant culture </li></ul>
  • 4. What is seen as normal behaviour in the dominant culture <ul><li>John Maguire and Laurence Scott-Mackay were the first couple to exchange vows in a civil partnership ceremony in Scotland, with a ceremony in Edinburgh </li></ul>
  • 5. May not be seen as normal behaviour in a different culture
  • 6. Or sub-culture
  • 7. There are cultural issues with this definition <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 8. This definition is therefore culturally relative
  • 9. Social norms vary from one culture or society to another
  • 10. <ul><li>social norms vary from one time to another </li></ul>On 25 May 1895 Wilde was convicted of gross indecency and sentenced to two years' hard labour. Wilde and Lord Alfred Douglas in 1893
  • 11. <ul><li>In 1973, the weight of empirical data, coupled with changing social norms and the development of a politically active gay community in the United States, led the Board of Directors of the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Some psychiatrists who fiercely opposed their action subsequently circulated a petition calling for a vote on the issue by the Association's membership. That vote was held in 1974, and the Board's decision was ratified. </li></ul>
  • 12. what is deviant is often related to the context of the situation
  • 13. Deviation from social norms may sometimes be illegal rather than abnormal!
  • 14. FAILURE TO FUNCTION ADEQUATELY <ul><li>From an individual’s point of view abnormality can be judged in terms of not being able to cope with day to day living . </li></ul>
  • 15. It may be the case that apparently dysfunctional behaviour is actually adaptive and functional for the specific individual .
  • 16. This definition may be biased by who judges ‘failure to function adequately’ as in the opinion of the individual they may believe that they are functioning adequately even if others do not agree.
  • 17. Failure to function may be as a result of economic or social conditions
  • 18. Some people may appear to function quite well yet still have psychological abnormality. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 19. What is ‘adequate’ in one culture may not be in another
  • 20. DEVIATION FROM IDEAL MENTAL HEALTH <ul><li>This judges mental health in the same way as physical health, a person requires certain attributes to be mentally healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Jahoda found six categories that were commonly referred to as desirable for mental health. </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>good self image </li></ul><ul><li>drive to realize self-potential </li></ul><ul><li>ability to cope with stress </li></ul><ul><li>being independent (autonomous) </li></ul><ul><li>having an accurate perception of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Being able to adapt to changes in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>absence of these indicates abnormality. </li></ul>
  • 22. However many of the categories are difficult to achieve <ul><li>Lego man is checking his self image…… </li></ul>
  • 23. Categories are based on a Western and individualist cultural ideal so the measure is ethnocentric <ul><li>A drive to realise self potential may look odd to some! </li></ul>
  • 24. Interpretation is subjective. Who decides w hich looks normal ?
  • 25. It is unclear how far a person could deviate before being defined as abnormal <ul><li>Tattoos and piercings are now accepted as normal but even these may sometimes viewed as abnormal… does this indicate psychological abnormality? </li></ul>
  • 32. How is psychological abnormality really judged. <ul><li>The dominant approach to psychopathology (the study of psychological abnormality) is the biological or medical model </li></ul><ul><li>This sees psychological abnormality in terms of: signs and symptoms that regularly occur together and can therefore be referred to as a syndrome these syndromes are distinctive from any other signs and symptoms and can therefore be identified as a particular disorder. </li></ul>
  • 33. Two major Classification systems <ul><li>The International Classification System for Diseases – ICD was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) – currently in it’s 10 th edition. Mental disorders were first included in 1952 and form only a small section of the manuel </li></ul>
  • 34. <ul><li>The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – DSM – was developed by th American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1952. The current edition is the 4 th . </li></ul><ul><li>This is generally used by mental health professionals mainly to make diagnoses. </li></ul>
  • 35. Problems with Diagnosis & Classification <ul><li>Even using these systems there can be significant disagreement between psychiatrists - this is generally because symptoms of different disorders overlap </li></ul><ul><li>There is an overemphasis of the biological aspects of the disorders with psychological factors minimised. </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling a person as having a particular disorder may stigmatise them so raises ethical issues. </li></ul>
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    Jul 23, 2017
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