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1. Treatment of fear of dark in children, cognitive-behavioural therapyGraziano & Mooney(1980)2 process theory (classical/operant conditioning), Behavioural…
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  • 1. Treatment of fear of dark in children, cognitive-behavioural therapyGraziano & Mooney(1980)2 process theory (classical/operant conditioning), Behavioural explanation of phobiasMowrer(1947)Phobias,monkeys scared of toy snakes and crocodiles but not rabbitsCook & Mineka(1990)Preparedness theory,Innate preparation to fear, evolutionSeligman(1971)Specific phobias more likely in 1st degree relatives (but not social phobias)Fyer et al(1995)Phobias, high autonomic reactivity, vulnerabilityEysenck (1967)Motivated forgetting,Paired associate words, electric shocksGlucksberg and Lloyd(1967)Context affects recall: deep sea divers recall of words on land or underwaterGodden & Baddeley(1975)Cue-dependent forgetting,Context/state dependentTulving(1972)American footballers, concussion, consolidation process interrupted Yarnell & Lynch(1970)<br />Proactive interference, trigrams and distractor task (counting back in 3s)Keppel & Underwood(1962)STM, Serial probe technique, interference rather than decayWaugh & Norman (1965)Flashbulb memory,Thatcher’s resignationConway et al (1994)LTM, semantic categorisation,Related words/hierarchyBower et al(1969)Limited capacity central executive,Two different tasks using different systems?Hunt(1980)Working memory model,Central executive, phonological loop,Visuospatial sketchpadBaddeley & Hitch(1974)Depth of processing, deep, intermediate or shallowCraik & Tulving(1975)Memory,Levels of processing theoryCraik & Lockheart(1972)STM, trigrams (MXT etc)Recall after various durations/distractionPeterson & Peterson(1959)Encoding in LTM and STM, Acoustically/ semantically similar/ unrelatedwordsBaddeley(1966)<br />Multi-store model of memory,Sensory memory andSTM/LTMAtkinson & Shiffrin(1968)Magic number7 (+/-2)Miller(1956)Defiance of authority,Petrol station manager fired, groups told to act offendedGamson et al (1982)Obedience to authority,electric shocks,Yale university Stanley Milgram(1963)Conformity,importance of task,line up of ‘suspects’Baron, Vandello & Brunsman(1996)Conformity,line lengths, size of the majority reporting wrong answerAsch(1951)Conformity,line lengths,stoogesAsch(1951)Autokinetic effect,moving light,conformitySherif(1935)Distraction conflict theory, digit copying alone or with someone doing same /different taskSanders et al.(1978)Evaluation apprehension theory, dominant response in presence of non/experts?Henchy & Glass(1968)<br />Cockroaches, runway, audience,dominant response. Zajonc(1969)Effect of audience,pool players, social facilitation/inhibition Michaels et al.(1982)Oedipus complex,Hans,fear of horses/fatherFreud(1909)Gender schemas,girls with dolls/guns,Consistent/inconsistentMartin & Halverson(1983)Development of gender constancy investigated by a mix n match puzzle showing head, body and legs of a child.Marcus & Overton(1978)Cognitive developmental theory: gender identity, stability, constancyKohlbergTeachers praise=Boys/academic achievementGirls/ tidiness and complianceEccles (1987)How mothers act towards a baby depending on perceived sex.Smith & Lloyd(1978)Effects of sex hormones on transsexuals,do affect gender related behaviours.Van Goozen et al.(1995)Nature/nurture,development of gender roles,baby boy became ‘Brenda’ then became ‘David’Diamond & Sigmundson(1997)<br />Minnesota Adoption Study, black children, inter-racial, intelligence.Scarr & Weinberg(1976)Selective breeding,maze-dull rats,stimulating environment.Cooper & Zubeck(1958)Gender roles, identity, males in Dominican Republic.Imperato-McGinley et al.(1979) IQ, birth order, family sizeZajonc & Markus(1975)Selective breeding,rats, maze-bright, maze-dull.Tyron(1940)Ethnographic study of gender roles,Arapesh, Mundugamor, Tchambuli tribesMead (1935)Bem sex role inventory,masculine, feminine, androgynous traits.Bem (1974)Heterosexual preferences,cross-cultural,questionnaire rating desirable traits.Buss(1994)Sex-role stereotypes, Tv advertising.Furnham & Farragher(2000)Gender role development,parental behaviour. Fagot(1978)<br />Alcoholic fathers,Biological predisposition?Gianoulakis, Krishnan & Thavundayil(1996) Not genetic basis for sexual orientation?Bearman & Bruckner(2002)Australian twins,Homosexuality.Bailey, Dunne & Martin(2000)Male twins,Homosexuality.Bailey & Pillard(1991)Meta-analysis of twin studiesBouchard & McGue(1981)Intellectual differences in twinsPlomin (1990)Longitudinal study, Infant intelligence in twins.Wilson (1978, 1983)Electrodes, cats’ visual cortexesHubel & Wiesel(1950s/60s)Split brain experiments,separate functions in hemispheres. Sperry & Gazzaniga(1960s)Frontal lobe injury, personality changePhineas Gage(1848)<br />Hierarchy of needs, pyramid,self-actualisationAbraham Maslow(1943)Person centred therapyCarl Rogers(1940s/50s)‘Rat man’,Obsessive-compulsive, Love/unconscious hate for father.Sigmund Freud(1909)Bobo dolls, aggression,3 conditions, imitation, social learning.Albert Bandura(1961)Little Albert, rats, loud noise, phobia.Watson & Rayner(1920)Dogs, bells, salivationClassical conditioningIvan Petrovich Pavlov(1849-1936)Law of Effect, cats, puzzle boxes.Edward Thorndike(1874-1949)Skinner boxes, rats, Operant conditioning.B. F. Skinner(1904-1990)“Tabula rasa”John Locke(1690)Male mice, reared alone, attacked other mice. Genetic tendency to aggression.Beck & Goode(1996)<br />
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