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1. “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar”Sigmund Freud<br /> 2. Psychodynamic Approach<br />The key assumption of the psychodynamic approach is that all…
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  • 1. “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar”Sigmund Freud<br />
  • 2. Psychodynamic Approach<br />The key assumption of the psychodynamic approach is that all human behaviour can be explained in terms of inner conflict of the mind.<br />
  • 3. The Mind<br />Thoughts<br />Perceptions<br />Memories<br />Stored knowledge<br />Fears<br />Unacceptable desires<br />Violent motives<br />Irrational wishes<br />Immoral urges<br />Selfish needs<br />Shameful experiences<br />Traumatic experiences<br />The conscious. The small amount of mental activity we know about.<br />The preconscious. Things we could be aware of if we wanted or tried.<br />Bad<br />Worse<br />Really Bad<br />The unconscious. Things we are unaware of and can not become aware of.<br />
  • 4. The Mind & The Psyche<br />This diagram is often used to represent Freud’s view of the mind and personality.<br />
  • 5. Freud (1856-1939)<br />Theory of Personality<br />ID = Latin for ‘it’<br />
  • 6. The Psyche<br />Id:<br />Instincts<br />Superego:<br />Morality<br />Ego:<br />Reality<br />
  • 7. Personality Development<br />Freud believed that the id, ego and super ego were separate and conflicting forces, <br />They need to be balanced for good mental health and normal behaviour<br />
  • 8. There is one cake left on the table.<br />ID – want the cake, needs to take the cake, isn't concerned about others. <br />SUPEREGO – I mustn’t have the cake, I should leave it for someone else, I will let someone else have it, don’t be greedy. <br />EGO – I will wait for a few minutes, see if anyone else has it, I am rather hungry, if it is still there in 5 minutes then I’ll take it. <br />
  • 9. Development of the ID, EGO and SUPEREGO<br />At birth, personality is ruled by ID (pleasure principle)<br />Early childhood, EGO starts to develop (reality principle)<br />Later childhood, the SUPER EGO emerges (Morality principle)<br />
  • 10. Healthy Psyche<br />OK Guys – I’m in charge. Anything you want has to go through me.<br />OK.<br />OK.<br />Ego<br />Id<br />Superego<br />
  • 11. Neurotic Psyche<br />Listen up! I’m in charge, and you are not here to enjoy yourselves. Get ready for a double-size portion of anxiety with a side order of guilt!<br />No fun.<br />>whimper<<br />Superego<br />Id<br />Ego<br />
  • 12. Psychotic Psyche<br />Sex! Food! Drink! Drugs! NOW!<br />Who turned out the lights?<br />Id<br />Superego<br />Ego<br />
  • 13. Psychopathic Psyche<br />OK. First, gimme food. Then I want sex – lots of it and I don’t particularly care whether it’s with a willing partner. Then I want to hurt people. Badly. Probably be hungry again after that so…<br />OK then. Let’s go.<br />
  • 14. Ego Defence Mechanisms <br />The constant conflict of between Id, Ego and Superego produces anxiety. To manage this anxiety, the ego has defence mechanisms;<br />1. Denial<br />2. Projection<br />3. Displacement<br />4. Repression<br />
  • 15. Repression<br />The Ego refuses to allow impulses from the ID to enter into conscious awareness. It does this to protect itself from traumatic experiences or painful experiences in childhood <br />i.e abuse. <br />
  • 16. Denial<br />Extreme form of self-protection where a person refuses to accept that a particular event has happened<br />i.e. a terminal cancer patient refusing to accept they are dying. <br />
  • 17. Displacement<br />Redirecting unacceptable desires and impulses on to a relatively safe target<br />i.e. hatred towards mother (unacceptable in society) is displaced on to a brother or sister. <br />
  • 18. Projection<br />Attributing your own unacceptable desires and impulses onto someone else<br /> i.e. accusing a friend of not liking you when you really don’t like them yourself. <br />In other words, blaming someone else…<br />
  • 19. Other Defence Mechanisms<br />Regression – regressing back to earlier childhood behaviour <br />e.g. a child anxious mother will reject him once new baby bro/sis arrives can revert to tantrums, bed wetting, soiling etc<br />Reaction Formation – hiding real feelings by acting in the opposite way<br />e.g. talking loudly when nervous<br />
  • 20. Defence Mechanismscan lead to Mental Disorder<br />unacceptable desires and impulses, traumatic events, etc ‘managed’ by defence mechanisms can;<br /> re-emerge as symptoms of anxiety or other emotional disorders.<br />Still affect behaviour, leading to distress as person doesn’t understand why they’re behaving as they are<br />Be triggered by similar life event, leading them to re-experience original event leading to depression.<br />
  • 21. Psychodynamic ApproachMain Assumption<br />The Psychodynamic Model assumes that experiences in our earlier years can affect our emotions, attitudes and behaviour in later years without us being aware that it is happening. Freud suggested that abnormal behaviour is caused by unresolved conflicts in the Unconscious. These conflicts create anxiety, and we use defence mechanisms such as repression and denial to protect our Ego against this anxiety. <br />21<br />
  • 22. Psychosexual Development<br />Oral<br />Anal<br />Phallic<br />Latency<br />Genital<br /><ul><li>‘Old Age Pensioners Love Guinness’</li></li></ul><li>Strengths<br />One strength of the Psychodynamic Model is that it reminds us that experiences in childhood can affect us throughout our lives. It accepts that everybody can suffer mental conflicts and neuroses through no fault of their own.<br />The model also suggests there is no need for medical intervention such as drugs, ECT or psychotherapy, and that the patient, with the help of a psychoanalyst, can find a cure through his own resources. (which empowers the individual & discourages helplessness)<br />
  • 23. Weaknesses<br />The main limitation of the Psychodynamic Model is that it cannot be scientifically observed or tested. Abstract concepts.<br />Any evidence recovered from a patient must be analysed and interpreted by a therapist. This leaves open the possibility of serious misinterpretation or bias because two therapists may interpret the same evidence in entirely different ways. Psychoanalysis is time-consuming and expensive. It may not even work: in a comprehensive view of 7000 cases, Eysenck (1952) claimed that psychodynamic therapy does more harm than good.<br />Sexist – unbalanced, Electra Complex for example not thorough / vague in detail. Reflective of Cultural bias of the time Freud worked (women were not considered as equal to men)<br />
  • 24. Activity: Fairy Tale Psychoanalysis<br />How can you explain the behaviour of the Fairytale characters using the Psychodynamic model.<br />Match up the correct example with the most likely explanation.<br />25<br />
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