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1. OCR CORE STUDIES – Section C The Cognitive Approach OCR Core Studies – Section C The Cognitive Approach The 3 Core Studies in the Cognitive Approach are: 1.…
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  • 1. OCR CORE STUDIES – Section C The Cognitive Approach OCR Core Studies – Section C The Cognitive Approach The 3 Core Studies in the Cognitive Approach are: 1. Baron-Cohen 2. Savage-Rumbaugh 3. Loftus & Palmer What will I have to know for Section C of the exam? In Section C of the core studies exam there will be TWO questions. You must answer ONE of these questions. Each question is worth 24 marks and will include a 12 mark essay style question. Each question will relate to one of the five approaches you will study (Cognitive, Social, Cognitive Developmental, Physiological and Individual Differences) or may relate to one of two perspectives you will study (Psychodynamic and Behaviourist). Questions will relate to an assumption of the approach, how the approach can explain a specific behaviour, similarities and differences between the 3 core studies in the approach and finally strengths and limitations of the approach. An example of a Section C question from the May 2009 exam paper. 1
  • 2. OCR CORE STUDIES – Section C The Cognitive Approach One Assumption of the Cognitive Approach. One assumption of the Cognitive Approach is how cognitive psychology has been influenced by developments in computer science. For example, the computer analogy which suggests that the way in which the human brain inputs, stores and outputs information is very similar to how a computer works. Produce an answer for the following question: Explain how the Cognitive Approach could explain the inaccuracy of eyewitness testimony. (4) ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Hints – try to make four clear points. Include reference to the Loftus & Palmer core study. Include leading questions, memories changing due to response bias and the reconstructive hypothesis. Similarities and Differences between the 3 core studies. Try to think of some similarities between Baron-Cohen’s study and Savage- Rumbaugh’s study. Also think of some differences between them. 2
  • 3. OCR CORE STUDIES – Section C The Cognitive Approach Similarities and Differences between the 3 core studies. Loftus & Baron-Cohen Palmer Savage-Rumbaugh Loftus & Palmer Generate some similarities and differences for the studies above and fill them in on the diagram. Consider points such as the sample size, the method used, the type of data collected, the participants and whether the study is snapshot or longitudinal. There are other points you can use. 3
  • 4. OCR CORE STUDIES – Section C The Cognitive Approach Answer the following question using the diagrams on page 3 and expand one similarity and one difference for 3 marks each. Describe one similarity and one difference between any cognitive approach studies. (6) ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Strengths and Limitations of the Cognitive Approach. 4
  • 5. OCR CORE STUDIES – Section C The Cognitive Approach Start by looking at the evaluation of each core study. Try to identify any evaluation issues that come up several times and use these as the strengths and limitations for the approach. Try to find two strengths and two limitations and note down the relevant core studies as examples. STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS 1. For example, one strength is that 1. many studies in the cognitive approach use LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS to study human behaviour. (High control, scientific, replicate, cause and effect….) For example Loftus & Palmer…… 2. 2. Now use the table on page 4 to produce a detailed plan of how to answer the following question: Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the cognitive approach using examples from any cognitive approach studies. (12) ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5
  • 6. OCR CORE STUDIES – Section C The Cognitive Approach ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Hints – Include two strengths and two weaknesses in your answer. Start with the strength or limitation and explain the issue (why is it a good/bad thing). Next bring in a suitable example from a relevant core study. You may also develop your answer and bring in another suitable example from another of the core studies to compare to the first. Comment on what this means…..’so what?’ Suitable issues to consider for the strengths and limitations might be reliability, validity, ethics, ecological validity, longitudinal Vs snapshot and qualitative and quantitative data. 6
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