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1. (Insert name) Psychology CutDown Sheets. Making a Case: Interviewing a Suspect: Lying CutDown 1.Lying CutDown SheetLying and deception is all about convincing others…
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  • 1. (Insert name) Psychology CutDown Sheets. Making a Case: Interviewing a Suspect: Lying CutDown 1.Lying CutDown SheetLying and deception is all about convincing others to believe something which isfalse. In this cut down sheet I will briefly go over the approaches and methods to liedetection; the cues and some evaluation points. In the booklet there will be furtherdetails and evaluative points as well as the study by Mann et al. Approach to Details detecting lying The emotional Lying causes emotions that differ from those experienced approach when telling the truth, results in stress i.e. sweating, raised voice pitch The content Lying is more cognitively demanding than telling the truth complexity and the concentration required can result in gaze aversion, approach fewer body movements and long pauses The attempted Attempting to control behaviour in order to prevent detection control approach through visible signs may in itself result in cues such as an unnaturally stiff presentation The self- Liars and truth tellers are seen as having a mutual goal; to presentational appear honest. But as liars don’t have the same grounds for perspective their claims there will be cognitive and behavioural differences in the way they present themselves and the information they giveOfficial Methods of Lie Detection (more details in booklet)• Statement Validity Assessment (SVA)• Reality Monitoring• Scientific Content Analysis• Computer-Based Linguistic Analysis• Computer Analysis of Voice StressPolygraphs – this is an instrument built to measure the physiological responsewe have to questionsIt measures three physiological systems governed by the autonomic nervoussystem (controls things like respiration etc)These are:1. Galvanic skin response (sweating from palm)2. Cardiovascular activity (blood pressure)3. Breathing patterns (sensors around chest)Lying CuesSweating, Raised voice pitch, Gaze aversion, Fewer body movements, Long pauses,Unnaturally stiff presentation, Differences in presentation of information andthemselvesVrij: Vocal Characteristics Facial Characteristics MovementsSpeech hesitations Gaze Self-manipulations: e.g. scratching/rubbingSpeech errors Smile Illustrators: functional hand & arm movementsPitch of voice Blinking Hand & finger movement: 1
  • 2. (Insert name) Psychology CutDown Sheets. Making a Case: Interviewing a Suspect: Lying CutDown non-functionalSpeech rate Leg & foot movementLatency period Head movement: nods & shakesFrequency of pauses Trunk movement or upper body: e.g. shruggingPause duration Shifting position: re- arrangements of sitting position etc. EvaluationPolugraphs• An appointed ‘working group’ concluded that there is little empirical support for these and that they are not in line with the BPS code of conduct (BPS, 1986)• Ecologically valid research is limited• Vrij (2000) – 87% of guilty suspects failed the test but more than 21% of innocent suspects were classified as guilty• Innocent people may react more strongly to being accused of a crime they didn’t commit• Techniques for beating the lie detector test – subtly changing you physiological responses to the control questions i.e. ensuring your breathing remains normal, performing mental calculations in your head or biting your tongue to cause moderate pain to control blood pressure and heart rate etcIssues with Lie Detection1. According to Hartwig (2004) people’s ability to detect lies is partly dependentupon wrongful beliefs about the characteristics of deceptive behaviour• Kassin & Fong (1999) carried out a training study which showed that people’s ability to detect lies accurately decreased when training occurred although they were more confident in their decisions2. The validity of the detection methods must be questioned• People are put in low stake situations where the consequences of their decisions don’t have much affect on the perpetrator• This is different to a high stake situation i.e. the real legal system in which there would be harsh and real consequences for the perpetrator• Studies by Mann et al and Vrij have investigated real high stake lies and truths in police interrogations which have indicated that realistic target materials improve lie detection but only slightly3. Context in which the assessment occurs also affects the detection accuracy• They don’t have the background information or the time to plan the interview that police officers otherwise would have (Hartwig et al., 2004)• One argument that counters the poor lie detection rates police officers often attain in these assessments is that they are unfamiliar with detecting lies from passive observation aloneStudy: Mann et al. 2
  • 3. (Insert name) Psychology CutDown Sheets. Making a Case: Interviewing a Suspect: Lying CutDownSee booklet (or for web version find out for yourselves!) 3
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