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1. Social Approach Revision workbook Useful websites http://www.holah.karoo.net/milgramstudy.htm http://www.integratedsociopsychology.net/robbers_cave.html…
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  • 1. Social Approach Revision workbook Useful websites http://www.holah.karoo.net/milgramstudy.htm http://www.integratedsociopsychology.net/robbers_cave.html http://www.psychwiki.com/wiki/Main_Page - SIT http://alevelpsychology.co.uk/social-psychology/social-influence/milgrams-agency-theory.html
  • 2. Content Key terms Your explanation You must use these in your explanations Outline the Influence • key Presence assumption of Change • the approach Behaviour Culture Groups Outline 6 Fully informed • ethical consent • guidelines Right to withdraw • from the BPS Deception • Competency Debrief Protection from stress or harm Outline the Open & closed • survey as a questions • research Qualitative & • method quantitative data • Interview Questionnaire Structured Semi-structured Unstructured Likert-scale Evaluate the Reliability •
  • 3. survey method Validity • Subjectivity • Operationalising • Depth Detail Scale Outline 3 Directional (one- • types of tailed) • hypothesis Non-directional • (two-tailed) Null Outline what Descriptive • qualitative and Views • quantitative Numbers data is Evaluate Depth of analysis • qualitative and Subjectivity • quantitative Analysis of • data is statistics Superficial Validity Objectivity Outline 4 Population • sampling Random methods Equal • Stratified Proportional • Opportunity Availability •
  • 4. Volunteer Self-sampling Advertising Evaluate each Bias • method – give Small population • a strength and Representative • weakness of Time consuming • each Easy • Ethical • Community • Access • Motivation Behaviour Define the Judgement • term Stereotypes Prejudice Discrimination Attitudes Define the Order • term Recognised Obedience authority Outline the Fans • Key issue Teams • (Football Chanting • Hooliganism) Violence • Community Cost Police Explain the Identification •
  • 5. Key issue Team allegiance • (Football Categorisation • Hooliganism) In groups / out • using Social groups • Identity Rivals Theory Strips Self-esteem Comparison Protection of Self- esteem In-group favouritism Out-group denigration Prejudice Violence Outline the Groups • aim of your Identity own study Favouritism Prejudice Outline the IV Age • and DV Group • Opinion Outline a Attitudes • suitable Negative experimental Age group hypothesis Outline the Survey • method you Questionnaire •
  • 6. used to gather Likert scale • your results Operationalisaton • Quantitative Qualitative Full consent Location Sample Outline your Opportunity • sampling Size method and Gender your sample Age Describe how Thematic analysis • you analysed Key terms • your results Descriptive statistics Mean Median Mode Range Bar chart What did you Mean • find? Median • Mode • Range Conclusions Hypothesis Evaluate your Generalisability • own study Sample • Validity •
  • 7. Questions • Validity Method / Design Subjectivity Analysis Content: Theories Agency Obedience • Theory Authority figure Outline Evolution • Rule – based behaviour • Complex social structure • Autonomous Agentic Free will Perceived authority Responsibility Actions Individual wishes Order Moral strain Defence mechanisms Agency Social behaviours • Theory Holocaust Evaluate Normal • Milgram (1963)
  • 8. Authority figure • Hofling (1966) Individual • difference No moral strain Circular Logic Applications Police / Army training Social Identity Identification • Theory Categorisation Outline In groups / out • groups Rivals • Self-esteem Comparison • Protection of Self- esteem In-group favouritism Out-group denigration Prejudice Use suitable examples Social Identity Tajfel (1970) • Theory Group competition Evaluate Verkooijen et al •
  • 9. (2007) Behaviour change • to conform Application • Real phenomena – hooliganism • Applications Tackling prejudice Dobbs & Crano (2001) Point allocation to out-group Individual differences Variations Complex history Content : Studies investigating obedience
  • 10. Milgram Aim • (1963) Obedience USA Authority Outline the Electric shocks Procedure • study Volunteers Sample • Location Scripts • Confederates Conditions Equipment Measurements Results • Psychology • professionals • 300V 450V Conclusions • Social setting Behaviour
  • 11. Milgram Generalisability • (1963) Population validity Evaluate the USA - culture study Sample Ethnocentric Reliability • Standardised procedure Replicable Scripts Validity • Ecological validity Setting Real life behaviour Validity • Experimental validity Mr Wallace Convincing Pain Control Ethics • BPS guidelines • Deception • Aim of study? • Stress • Harm and • understanding Right to withdraw
  • 12. Milgram Procedural • (1962) differences Variations on Location: Office the baseline Block Note: Results • differences There are only Volts differences % outlined here Evaluation • – the rest differences should be Ecological validity written as the Field experiment original study is
  • 13. Meeus & Aim • Raaijmakers Obedience (1985) Authority Netherlands – Psychological different pressure culture to Up-to-date Procedure • Milgram Volunteers (1963) Sample • Outline the Location study Scripts • Confederates Conditions Equipment Measurements Results • Obeyed • Unfair • Conclusions • Social setting • Behaviour Liberal culture
  • 14. Meeus & Generalisability • Raaijmakers Population validity (1985) Dutch – culture – • Netherlands – compared to USA different Sample culture to Bias Reliability • Milgram Standardised (1963) procedure Evaluate the Replicable study Scripts Validity • Ecological validity Setting Real life behaviour Validity • Experimental validity Unlikely scenario Ethics • BPS guidelines • Deception • Aim of study? • Distress • Harm • Fairness of treatment Right to withdraw Prompting
  • 15. Key Studies Study in Aim • detail Obedience Hofling et al Authority (1966) Physician Nurse Experimental Relationship Procedure • study in Opportunity Nurse- Sample • Physician Location Relationships Scripts • Confederates Outline the Conditions study Equipment Measurements Results • Obeyed • Questionnaire • Students Later reports Conclusions • Questionnaire • thought Nurses did
  • 16. Hofling (1966) Generalisability • Experimental Population validity study in Sample • Nurse- Gender Physician Location Reliability • Relationships Standardised Evaluate the procedure study Replicable Scripts Validity • Ecological validity Setting - Ward Real life behaviour Validity • Experimental validity Did it measure what it intended to? Fatigue of nurses Ethics • BPS guidelines • Informed consent • Unknown • participation • Distress • Harm Professional self-
  • 17. Sherif et al Aim • (1963) Prejudice Robbers Cave Groups Experiment Competition Procedure • Sample Outline the Location • study Groups Them – us • Concellor Flag burning Tournament Manipulation points Results • Fighting • In-group • preference Competition Out-group friendships Collaborative activities Conclusions • Competition • Prejudice & Discrimination Inter-group Conflict
  • 18. Sherif et al Generalisability • (1961) Population validity Robbers Cave USA • experiment Middle Class Evaluate the Boys Reliability • study Inter-Rater reliability Judgements agreed by other observers Validity • Ecological validity Setting Real life behaviour Summer camp Activities Validity • Experimental validity Covert observation Councillors Ethics • BPS Guidelines • Informed consent • Parents Right to withdraw Stress – psychological harm
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