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1. Pro-Social Behaviour 2. ã Lovelace & Huston (83)3 modelling stages0–5 pro-social only messages5 – 10 pro-social conflict resolution10+ conflict without…
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  • 1. Pro-Social Behaviour
  • 2. • Lovelace & Huston (83)3 modelling stages0–5 pro-social only messages5 – 10 pro-social conflict resolution10+ conflict without resolution• Fogel (2007)Found that children aged 8-12 behave more prosocially if programmes are discussed with an adultafter.
  • 3. Cognitive Priming• A concept that states that if we observe something we will store it as a ‘script’ that, if we are confronted with the same situation in the future, we will recall and re-enact that script.• Paulson (74) - American children watched co-operation modelling on Sesame Street for 6 months. - Scored higher in co-operation tests - Free play observation did not see an increase in PSB
  • 4. Overall evaluation of PSB modelling in media• Media can influence PSB• Some evidence of pro-social cognitive priming• Needs lots of reinforcement• Swift ‘decay’ if not reinforced• Often relatable only to the context• Message must be clear – ASB often learned too and is remembered more readily (Bandura et al 63)• Support for Lovelace & Huston’s stages• Best if mediated afterwards by an adult
  • 5. Anti-social behaviour and learning
  • 6. Huesmann et al (2003)• 1977 – 557 American children, aged 5-8 had their TV ‘diet’ monitored• 1991 – 398 had friends interviewed to assess aggression score VIOLENT TV POSITIVELY CORRELATES TO HIGHER AGGRESSIN SCORES• Same sex role-model was more likely to be influential (supports Manstead et al 95)• Violent TV during pro-social conflict resolution stage = 3 times higher conviction rate
  • 7. Huesmann et al (2003) evaluation• Longitudinal study – strengths vs weaknesses• Large sample• Secondary data• Over-simplistic – ignores... – Situational forces – seen in institutionalised aggression – Dispositonal forces – genetic make up, personality (Anderson & Bushman 2002 stated that some are more susceptible to on screen violence than others...smokers analogy) – Ecosystemic factors – home life etc
  • 8. Anti-Social BehaviourDesensitisation argument If we watch violence we initially have increased physiological signs (e.g. pupil dilation heart rate) and psychological responses (e.g. increased aggression, a decrease in helping behaviours). However, repeated exposure leads to a reduction in physiological and emotional responses. Normalisation of abnormal behaviours
  • 9. Williams (86)• Natural Observation• 3 Canadian towns: Notel – TV Unitel – CBC Multitel – CBC + 3 from US• 2 periods of observations: 1 year before TV 2 years after TV• Only Notel showed an increase in physical and verbal aggression Notel = arousal Unitel = desensitisation Multitel
  • 10. Parke et al (1977)Aim: to show increased aggression as a result ofexposure to violent TV programmes. HV LV HV LVSample: young offenders living in differentcottages in an institution.Design: field experiment with independentmeasures. 1 week of obs by staffMethod: normal TV service was discontinued. Ppsin one cottage saw only programmes with violentcontent (e.g. ‘Batman’, ‘The Untouchables’). Pps in Violent Non-other cottage saw only non-violent programmes TV violent(IV=violent/non-violentprogramming). Institution staff observed andrecorded behaviour of the pps (DV=observerratings of aggression). 1 week of obs by staffResult: an increase in aggression was observed inthe ‘violent programmes’ group. No change inConclusion: exposure to violent programmes led toincreased aggression levels.
  • 11. Can media influence ASB?Rap AND Riots Metal AND Murder
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