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1. Models of Abnormality<br />COGNITIVE<br />Gemma Cookman<br /> Alice Noton<br /> Cathy Comerford<br />Ali Heslop<br /> Becci…
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  • 1. Models of Abnormality<br />COGNITIVE<br />Gemma Cookman<br /> Alice Noton<br /> Cathy Comerford<br />Ali Heslop<br /> Becci Fay<br />
  • 2. So what is it?<br />The Cognitive Model is quite similar to the Behavioural Model but with the main difference that, instead of teaching the patient to behave differently it teaches the patient to think differently.<br />To understand behaviour, we must understand thoughts – this includes how people see themselves and their environment. Abnormal behaviour is caused by irrational thought processes, including:<br />Magnification and Minimisation - people magnify failure and minimise success.<br />Overgeneralization – a person makes a broad conclusion based on one trivial event.<br />If the patients feelings and emotions towards something are influenced to change, it will induce external behavioural change. Though similar in ways to the Behavioural Model, psychiatrists of this model use differing methods for cures.<br />
  • 3. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy<br />REBT – Ellis (1962) <br />Ellis developed Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), using the ABC model, based on his theoretical model of how psychological problems emerge. <br />
  • 4. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy<br />REBT – Ellis (1962)<br />He claimed that REBT helps people to ‘cure’ themselves in an elegant way because they become less disturbed and less anxious and they maintain this over a long period, or even permanently. <br />The therapist encourages, with the cognitive element, for the client to become aware of the beliefs that contribute to anxiety or depression or are associated with general dysfunctions in daily life. This in the session involves direct questioning with the client, like ‘Tell me what you think about...’ and also diagrams are used. The diagrams help the client to understand better where there faulty cognitions are leading them, so they can see it in front of there eyes. <br />The ultimate aim is that REBT should be incorporated into a person’s way of life, in order to overcome procrastination and eradicate self-defeating thoughts.<br />
  • 5. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy<br />Beck’s Cognitive Therapy (Beck et al. 1985)<br />This is used mainly for people with depression and is aimed at training clients to monitor situations where they make negative assumptions. <br />It encourages them to challenge these distorted thoughts and to take part in activities (such as logical question and answer sessions in which the client’s irrational beliefs are challenged) that will help them to see that such assumptions are unfolded. <br />Beck devised the ‘Beck Depression Inventory’- an assessment scale for depression (Beck et al. 1961). From this other scales have been devised including the ‘Suicide Intent Scale’. These scales are used by clinical psychologists to monitor depression in clients. Subsequently, Beck has applied his techniques to phobias, anxieties and personality disorders.<br />
  • 6. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy<br />Meichenbaum’s stress inoculation model<br /> Meichenbaum’s 1972 stress inoculation model (SIT) has been widely used in stress management training.<br /> This is a CBT approach to stress – consists of 3 stages.<br />Conceptualism<br />Identify the source of stress – when do they first encounter this stressor etc, what are its key features?<br />Encouraged to keep a diary<br />Therapist may challenge their appraisal of a situation/stressor<br />Skills training and rehearsal<br />Acquire specific skills to deal with the stressors<br />Social anxiety is a problem – hard to communicate verbally, no eye contact with other people.<br />Identify the arousal pattern in social situations<br />Relaxation technique before going into social situations<br />Idea is to keep arousal under control<br /> Application in real world<br />Practising specific skills<br />Therapist continually monitors the client<br />The client learns through experience<br />
  • 7. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy<br />CBT and treating schizophrenia<br />Cognitive behavioural therapies are considered appropriate for those who have developed good problem-solving skills and who are capable of gaining reasonable insight into their own problems<br />Both Beck & Meichenbaum saw a role for CBT in schizophrenic patients.<br />Hole at al, 1979, encouraged patients to ‘reality-test’ their delusions. They found that half could reduce the pervasive nature of their delusions.<br />However these CBT techniques do not offer a cure, rather a way of ‘normalising’ symptoms.<br />
  • 8. Examples of Mental Disorders<br />Psychotic Major DepressionSkins character Effie suffers from Psychotic Depression. This explains her unpredictable behaviour and attempted suicide. PMD is estimated to affect about 0.4% of the population (one in every 250 people). Many people with psychotic depression experience delusions, which are beliefs or feelings that are untrue or unsupported.<br />
  • 9. Examples of Mental Disorders<br />Schizophrenia Newt from Hollyoaks suffers from Schizophrenia. This is why he hears voices in his head and talks to himself - as he has a split personality. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception or expression of reality. It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking with significant social or occupational dysfunction. Onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood.<br />
  • 10. Evaluation<br />Diverse Applications - cognitive behavioural therapies are becoming more popular and diverse in their applications. They are increasingly becoming the most widely used therapy by clinical psychologists in the National Health Service, partly because they are used in stress management, as well as in treating educational, marital and family problems<br />Appeal of CBT – CBT appeals to clients who find insight therapies (e.g. psychoanalysis) too but threatening. CBT could have criticised for not addressing underlying causes, but it does attempt to empower clients by educating them into self-help strategies. However, despite this, clients sometimes do become dependent on their therapist.<br />Use of CBT in treating depression – Research shows that CBT is at least as effective as drugs in treating depression (Hollon et al. 1992). <br />Ethics – CBT is a collaborative therapy that aims for a relatively equal relationship between the client and the therapist: the client and therapist together agree what the problem is and what the goals of the therapy should be. This collaborative aspect of CBT exempts the therapy from the criticism sometimes levelled against psychoanalysis that the therapist holds all the power and expertise to make the client better. <br />
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