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1. Gender Development The difference between sex and gender 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>By the end of this section you should:…
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  • 1. Gender Development The difference between sex and gender
  • 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>By the end of this section you should: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what is meant by the term sex </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what is meant by the term gender </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to distinguish between masculine, feminine and androgynous behaviour. </li></ul>
  • 3. What’s the difference? <ul><li>SEX </li></ul><ul><li>Male or Female </li></ul><ul><li>Physical differences </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics – determined at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy – this can be changed </li></ul><ul><li>GENDER </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine or Feminine </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Identity: gender reassignment, perception of own masculinity/femininity </li></ul>
  • 4. Androgyny <ul><li>It is important to remember that while the terms ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ are frequently used to mean the same thing, they are different. </li></ul><ul><li>If someone displays equal amounts of masculine and feminine traits they are deemed to be ‘androgynous’. </li></ul>
  • 5. Bem (1974) <ul><li>Read the description of the research study on p 45 and then write about the following in your own words: </li></ul><ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  • 6. Methods of Self Report: Questionnaires (p95) <ul><li>What is a questionnaire? </li></ul>STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES <ul><li>Easily administered – they can be sent out in the post and large numbers can be completed at the same time making them more cost effective and less time consuming than individual interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>As questionnaires are frequently anonymous it should mean that the person has given more honest answers, therefore making them more valid. </li></ul><ul><li>People may not return/fully complete the questionnaires. You may find that only a certain type of person will return a questionnaire therefore producing a response bias in your sample. </li></ul><ul><li>It can mean that the questions are open to interpretation – they may not understand what is being asked of them producing invalid responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people may still give incorrect or misleading answers fearing that they will be judged. </li></ul>
  • 7. Sex versus Gender <ul><li>Sex: </li></ul><ul><li>Male or Female </li></ul><ul><li>Determined at conception </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic…? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: </li></ul><ul><li>Born with masculine & feminine traits? </li></ul>James Harries as a young boy James is now Lauren after gender reassignment surgery
  • 8. Imperato-McGinley et al (1979) <ul><li>Read the description of the research study on p 46/47 and then write about the following in your own words: </li></ul><ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  • 9. Case Studies (p104) Strengths Weaknesses As case studies go into great depth they as seen as having high levels of validity. Due to the small sample size the findings are difficult to generalise to the rest of the population. Researchers have the opportunity to study phenomenon they would not have been permitted to set up as an experiment (Imperato McGinley would not have been allowed to mess around with hormones in young children to study their gender identity) It is too easy for the researcher to lose their objectivity as they can get too close to the person/persons under investigation. Due to their level of detail case studies are seen as efficient methods of investigation – it only takes one case study to disprove a theory. The researcher is always coming to the situation after the event e.g. Imperato-McGinley were not there during the children’s early development and so would not know exactly how these children were initially treated. Difficult to determine cause and effect (brain damage)
  • 10. Rekers et al (1974) <ul><li>Used behaviourist principles (reinforcement) to replace feminine behaviour of an 8 year old boy with masculine behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>At 16 the boy was describes as having ‘normal’ gender appropriate behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think there are any ethical problems associated with this type of ‘treatment’? </li></ul>
  • 11. It’s all about perception <ul><li>Gender is interesting to psychologists as it is about how people see their own gender identity & how this impacts on their behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender is a psychological concept & can be changed (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Sex is a biological concept & is fixed (?) </li></ul>
  • 12. Terms to learn <ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Androgyny </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Transsexual </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospective </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul>
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    Jul 23, 2017
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