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1. A2 PSYCHOLOGY Criminological Psychology Unit Three WORK BOOKLET NAME……………………………………………………………………… 2. What you need…
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  • 1. A2 PSYCHOLOGY Criminological Psychology Unit Three WORK BOOKLET NAME………………………………………………………………………
  • 2. What you need to know ; * Define criminological psychology, showing understanding that it is about the definition and causes of crime and the identification, judgement and treatment of criminals. * Define and use psychological terminology appropriately. Methodology • Describe research methods used to assess witness effectiveness including the laboratory experiment and the field experiment and their use in criminological psychology; evaluate, including the relative strengths and weaknesses, reliability, validity and ethical issues. Content * Describe and evaluate two explanations of criminal/antisocial behaviour from different approaches. – LEARNING AND SOCIAL APPROACHES * Describe and evaluate three studies into eyewitness testimony – Loftus & Palmer, Yarmey and Yuille & Cutshall * Describe and evaluate two ways of treating offenders – TOKEN ECONOMY AND ANGER MANAGEMENT Studies in detail * Loftus and Palmer’s (1974) * Charlton et al (2000) Key issue / Evidence of practice How reliable is eye witness testimony? * Summary of two articles * Application of criminological concepts ( 5 to 6) You must be able to evaluate. Here are a few reminders of how you can develop your evaluative skills: • Consider other research that supports or goes against the theory/study you are evaluating. • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research methods used in the study? • Was the research carried out ethically? • Does the study/theory have general application i.e. does it help explain things in everyday life? • Does it explain the subject matter in a more understandable/logical/applicable way compared to other theories? You must provide EVIDENCE for the points you make – this means RESEARCH STUDIES Define criminological psychology
  • 3. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ KEY TERMINOLOGY Define the following key terms for the criminological psychology crime recidivism token economy anti-social behaviour stereotyping modelling eye witness testimony Methodology
  • 4. Describe laboratory experiments ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Describe how laboratory experiments can be used to assess witness effectiveness ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Describe field experiments ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Describe how field experiments can be used to assess witness effectiveness ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Evaluate laboratory and field experiments in their use for research for criminological psychology, including reliability, validity and ethical issues
  • 5. Strengths Weaknesses Laboratory Field CONTENT
  • 6. Describe how the social learning theory (learning approach) can explain criminal behaviour/anti-social behaviour, including the possible role of the media in modelling anti-social behaviour ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....
  • 7. Evaluate the social learning theory (learning approach) explanation of criminal behaviour/anti-social behaviour Strengths Weaknesses
  • 8. Describe how labelling and the self-fulfilling prophecy (social approach) can explain criminal behaviour/anti-social behaviour, including labelling and self-fulfilling prophecy ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....
  • 9. Evaluate the labelling and self-fulfilling prophecy (social approach) explanation of criminal behaviour/anti-social behaviour Strengths Weaknesses Using APRC method write out Loftus & Palmer (1974)
  • 10. AIM PROCEDURE RESULTS
  • 11. CONCLUSION Evaluate Loftus & Palmer (1974)
  • 12. Strengths Weaknesses
  • 13. Using APRC method write out Yarmey (2004) AIM PROCEDURE RESULTS
  • 14. Evaluate Yarmey (2004) Strengths Weaknesses
  • 15. Using APRC method write out Yuille & Cutshall (1986) AIM PROCEDURE RESULTS
  • 16. CONCLUSION
  • 17. Evaluate Yuille & Cutshall (1986) Strengths Weaknesses
  • 18. Use the three studies you have learnt to explain the reliability of EWT ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________
  • 19. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Treatment of offenders Fill in the following tables – define, describe and evaluate both treatments (make sure you use studies as evidence) Token economy Define Describe Strengths Weaknesses
  • 20. Anger Management Define Describe Strengths Weaknesses
  • 21. STUDIES IN DETAIL Loftus & Palmer (1974) – you have already learnt this study, but you must know it in great detail, as you could be asked a 6 mark question just on one area, such as the findings or conclusion. Without looking at any notes, how much can you recall about Loftus & Palmer? Write as much as possible, and then look back at your notes for anything you may have forgotten. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________
  • 22. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Using APRC method write out Charlton (2000) AIM PROCEDURE
  • 23. RESULTS CONCLUSION
  • 24. Evaluate Charlton (2000) Strengths Weaknesses
  • 25. KEY ISSUE What is the key issue for criminological psychology? Why is it an issue?
  • 26. EVIDENCE OF PRACTICAL Fill in the table. Remember to state where the sources have come from and why they were used. ARTICLE 1 ARTICLE 2
  • 27. Apply key concepts from criminological psychology to the articles you have used. Aim for 5-6
  • 28. For the practical you carried out an analysis of two articles therefore using secondary data. The following are exam-style questions related to the key issue/practical – ensure you are able to answer all of them. NOTE: You need to take care here. The specification states that students must carry out an analysis of two articles and a content analysis for Unit 3. We chose ANALYSIS OF ARTICLES for Criminological Psychology and CONTENT ANALYSIS for Child Psychology (other schools may have done them the other way around so the exam questions are ‘open’). Do not get your practicals confused – it will lead to heavy loss of marks. 1) Describe one key issue you have studied within criminological psychology (5 marks) 2) With regard to the practical you carried out for criminological psychology answer the following questions. When ‘analysis’ is referred to, you can answer focusing on an analysis of two articles or a content analysis a) Did your method of gathering information involve primary or secondary data? Explain how these data were used (4 marks) b) Give one example of qualitative or quantitative data from your practical in the criminological approach and explain why your data fit that description (3 marks) c) Relate the information you found to the key issue, using concepts and ideas from criminological psychology (6 marks) 3) With reference to two articles or to a content analysis, discuss one key issue
  • 29. that you have studied within criminological psychology (6 marks) EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS – CRIMINOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 1) What is meant by recidivism? (2 marks) 2) Explain three areas of study that are of interest to criminological/forensic psychologists (6 marks) 3) Outline three features of a laboratory experiment as a research method ( 6 marks) 4) Compare the field experiment and the laboratory experiment as ways of studying witness effectiveness. In your answer refer to validity, reliability and ethical issues (12 marks) 5) With reference to two studies explain how the experimental research method is used to study witness effectiveness (8 marks) 6) Describe two explanations for criminal behaviour (8 marks) 7) Outline two ways of treating offender behaviour (6 marks) 8) Discuss the claim that eyewitness testimony is unreliable, using evidence from studies (12 marks) CHECKLIST OF WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW FOR CRIMINOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY I NEED TO KNOW ABOUT DONE MORE WORK Defining: crime, anti-social behaviour and recidivism Defining: Eyewitness testimony, stereotyping, modelling and token economy Laboratory and field experiments and examples/evaluation of their use to assess witness effectiveness Evaluating laboratory and field exp
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