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1. Psychology as a Science ParadigmsWhat is a paradigm?What does Kuhn ay about the role of Paradigms in Science?Does Kuhn regard Psychology as a Science? Why? What did he…
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  • 1. Psychology as a Science ParadigmsWhat is a paradigm?What does Kuhn ay about the role of Paradigms in Science?Does Kuhn regard Psychology as a Science? Why? What did he call Psychology?Explain Palermo’s view of Psychology as a science
  • 2. Theory and hypothesisWhat is a theory?What is a hypothesis?What is it called when a hypothesis is created from a theory?“No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove mewrong.” (Einstein, in Calaprice, 2005)Popper (1959) – “a theory that cannot be falsified is ‘immune’ from this process and thereforeunscientific”Explain the above quotes
  • 3. Empirical Methods in PsychologyWhat are the 3 features of experiments?1.2.3.Limitations on adopting a scientific approach to psychologyScience must be objective?Define the term objective____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Experiments in Physics and Chemistry, there are no interaction between scientists and objective ofstudy therefore not influencing the outcome of the experiment.What about in Psychology?Why is it difficult to achieve objectivity in psychology compared to other sciences ie physics?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 4. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________ Rosenthal and Jacobson (1986) teacher expectations of their pupils were manipulated; they were told that one group of children would be likely to do well over the school year. Another group of children had no predictions made about them. One year later, intelligence tests showed that the expectations of the teachers came true. In fact, the two groups of children were randomly formed and with no known differences between the two groups. Explain how this is an example of experimenter bias? Explain how the self-fulfilling prophecy may have occurred in this study? What is a double blind experiment and how may this have affected the results?ReplicationFor findings of research to be considered scientific, it must be verifiable by other psychologists.What does this mean?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why is this an important feature in science?
  • 5. Generalisation Generalisation of results from an empirical study using a small or limited sample of people to a large population of people. What factors need to be taken into consideration in order for it to be a representative sample? How does generalisation involve induction? (see page 284) How is volunteer bias a problem in psychological research? What type of people usually tend to be involved in a volunteer sample?Give an example of an empirical piece of research where findings from a laboratory experiment havebeen generalised to real life.Give an example of an empirical piece of research where findings about one culture have beengeneralised to another culture
  • 6. Overt and Subjective private experienceOvert behaviour is Behaviour that is open and detectable.For example____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Traditionally, a distinction is made between that which is observable as being agreeable with thescientific approach and that which is not observable as subjective an therefore not open to scientificinquiry. Give an example of non-observable phenomena which psychologists are interested in__________________________________________________________________________________Discuss overt and subjective private experiences in relation to the different approaches below Behaviourism Humanistic CognitiveWhat is the “stream of consciousness”
  • 7. Psychology may be turning back to subjective experience as part of its subject matter. Psychologistshave argued that the hard – line scientific and deterministic approach of the behaviourists shouldnot have been allowed in psychology.Why?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The role of peer review in research One of the most important ways in which the findings of research in psychology are communicated to other psychologists, and anyone who is interested, is through publication in research journals. The way in which research reports or articles appear in these journals is through a process called peer review. Describe the process
  • 8. Strengths Limitations
  • 9. What’s the difference between the two exam questions?Discuss the view that psychology is a science.Discuss the view that psychology should adopt the scientific approach.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Complete the Venn diagram on the next page which will help you to start thinking about how youwould answer these questions
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