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1. Buss 1989 Sex Differences in Human Mate Preference Exam questions There are 5 types of questions on PY2. This booklet will take you through the different types and…
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  • 1. Buss 1989 Sex Differences in Human Mate Preference Exam questions There are 5 types of questions on PY2. This booklet will take you through the different types and using Buss ‘study show you how to answer the questions. 1. Summarise the aims and context of…... This question is an AO1 question and is asking you to describe what happened before the actual study. It is the background that leads to the study in question. No study happens in a vacuum so you need to explain other studies that came before or things that were happening in the world that interested psychologists and sparked off the study in question. You also need to write down the aim of the study. 2. Outline the procedures of………. This is an AO1 question that wants you to describe what happened in the study itself. You write your answer like a set of instructions for doing the study. 3. Describe the findings and conclusions of…... This is an AO1 question that wants you to describe the findings and conclusion in the study itself. You might be including lots of data in your answer e.g.%s 4. Evaluate the methodology of….. This is an AO2 question asking you to evaluate the method used by the researchers. This is like the methodology question on PY1. 5. With reference to alternative evidence critically assess……. This is another AO2 question asking you to say how successful the original study was compared to other similar studies either before or after the original. Questions 4 or 5 are repeated to make a total of 6 15minute/12 marks questions in the first section of the exam. It is useful to think of the questions like this: BEFORE STUDY= Q1 aims and context DURING STUDY= Q2/3 procedures, findings and conclusions AFTER= Q4/5/6 evaluate method/alternative evidence So let’s see how this works with a real example- Buss’study into mate preference. This is one of your 10 core studies.
  • 2. Buss 1989 Sex Differences in Human Mate Preference AIMS and context Cross Cultural Studies- why/how? Using meta analysis- using other researchers This type of findings- not very controlled, various research is very methodologies, various sample sizes. susceptible to bias, in particular ethnocentricity. If findings show different patterns If findings show common across cultures it is evidence patterns across cultures it is against universal behaviours and evidence for universal suggests cultural explanations- behaviours and evolutionary proximate level theory- ultimate level. Attracting a good mate is sometimes more important than natural selection Sexual Selection- what is it? Women chose Sperm is small and taller, common and egg is experienced, large and rare. Men can wealthy males father many children. Men chose that have (ANISOGAMY) shorter, different genes younger, Men are bigger and to her. fertile stronger than women- females (DIMORPHISM) that have Men are in different competition for genes to women with other him. men - intra sexual selection. Both men and Women choose women want healthy Choosy which men to mate babies that survive. Loves with – inter sexual Randy selection.
  • 3. Buss- previous studies Sexual jealousy and • Charles Darwin chastity. Males have • Natural selection highly evolved sexual jealousy to • Sexual selection protect paternity- • Peacocks tail Daly 1982 Symons 1979- neotony- males • Trivers prefer younger • Parental females because of their reproductive investment value Procedures Outline the procedures of………. This is an AO1 question that wants you to describe what happened in the study itself. You write your answer like a set of instructions for doing the study. • 37 samples from 33 countries • Ps=10,047 • Sample size varies from 55 to 1491 • There was a range of sampling techniques • There was a range of ages • Blind research • Meta analysis • 2 questionnaires • Rating questionnaire • Ranking questionnaire • Translations
  • 4. Findings and conclusions Describe the findings and conclusions of…... This is an AO1 question that wants you to describe the findings and conclusion in the study itself. You might be including lots of data in your answer e.g.%s Good financial prospects 97% 92% 78% Age differences 2.66 years 3.42 years Good looks 92% Chastity 62% Conclusions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  • 5. Evaluate the methodology This is an AO2 question asking you to evaluate the method used by the researchers. This is like the methodology question on PY1. Buss used a Write down your ideas in this table. Feature strength weakness Sample size and type Control Replicable External validity naturalistic Consistent/reliable ethical
  • 6. reductionist Population validity Internal validity Alternative evidence This is another AO2 question asking you to say how successful the original study was compared to other similar studies either before or after the original. Alternatives • Other cross cultural studies • Cunningham(1995) found a +0.93 correlation between the attractiveness ratings of women across 3 cultures- American Hispanic and Asian • Lonely hearts ads • Dunbar (1995) studied 900 ads in US papers they found men valued physical attractiveness and youth more than women. Women advertised their attractiveness and men advertised their economic success • Alternative explanations • Humans prefer average faces because they seem familiar- mere exposure effect • Attractiveness varies over time so it is a more socially constructed concept
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