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1. Memory Miss Applewhite 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>You must understand the basic concepts of the MSM. </li></ul><ul><li>You…
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  • 1. Memory Miss Applewhite
  • 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>You must understand the basic concepts of the MSM. </li></ul><ul><li>You should be able map the layout of the MSM. </li></ul><ul><li>You could apply these findings to practical applications of memory. </li></ul>
  • 3. What do you think of? <ul><li>Draw a mind map in your books of what you think of when someone says memory to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of any examples in the media/cinema etc? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0vS0E9bBSL0 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErjP5xMTc8I </li></ul>
  • 4. What does memory involve? <ul><li>First there is the encoding of the information that is received via the senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Second there is the storage of this information. </li></ul><ul><li>Third there is the retrieval of this information when it is needed. </li></ul>
  • 5. What is Encoding? <ul><li>The way in which information is represented in the memory store e.g. by sound, meaning or image. </li></ul>
  • 6. What is Capacity? <ul><li>The amount of information that can be held in memory at any one time. </li></ul>
  • 7. What is Duration? <ul><li>The length of time that memories can be held. </li></ul>
  • 8. The Multi Store Model of Memory <ul><li>Using the textbooks provided you have to come up with a model of the Multi Store Model of memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be a poster, a drawing or even an actual model. Add as much detail into it as possible in 20 mins. </li></ul>
  • 9. The Multi Store Model of Memory <ul><li>This is the most well known and influential model of memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Aktinson and Shiffrin (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Envisioned the process of memory being a flow through an information processing system. </li></ul><ul><li>These divided into a series of stages as information passes from one store to another. </li></ul><ul><li>At each of the stages there are the constraints of capacity, duration and encoding. </li></ul>
  • 10. Sensory Memory <ul><li>So the first store is the sensory store where the stimuli coming in from the environment is only there for a very brief period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested that there were 3 types of sensory stores: Iconic (things we see), Echoic (things we hear) and Haptic (things we feel/touch). </li></ul>
  • 11. Study to support Sensory Memory <ul><li>Use the books to find the Sperling (1960) study that looks at sensory memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Page 9 </li></ul>
  • 12. The next store <ul><li>This store is known as the STM or Short Term Memory. </li></ul><ul><li>This store can only last for 30 seconds in holding information. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity is only 7+/-2 items </li></ul><ul><li>Things are mainly coding through sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Things are forgotten mainly through the displacement of information. </li></ul>
  • 13. Duration of the STM <ul><li>Peterson and Peterson (1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: test the duration of the STM. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: the participants had to remember nonsense consonant trigrams (e.g. HGK) at different times. 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 seconds. Pps had to do a distraction task which was counting backwards in 3s from a random 3 digit number. </li></ul><ul><li>Findings: after 3 seconds recall was 80% but if recall was after 18 seconds the recall was reduced to 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>Concluded: that information disappears or decays rapidly from the STM when rehearsal is prevented. </li></ul>
  • 14. Capacity of the STM <ul><li>Use the books to research the Miller (1956) study. </li></ul><ul><li>Page 12 </li></ul>
  • 15. Encoding in STM <ul><li>Conrad (1964) found that participants made mistakes when recalling words that sounded similar (acoustically similar), when recall was immediate (e.g. testing STM) </li></ul><ul><li>Baddeley (1966) investigated both STM and LTM by giving pps the words that are acoustically similar or dissimilar, or semantically similar or dissimilar. What did Baddeley find? </li></ul>
  • 16. The last store <ul><li>This store is the LTM or Long Term Memory. </li></ul><ul><li>This store has an unlimited capacity for amounts of information. </li></ul><ul><li>This store has an unlimited duration for which information can be stored. </li></ul><ul><li>Information seems to be semantically coded. </li></ul>
  • 17. Duration of LTM <ul><li>Bahrick et al (1975) demonstrated the existence of very long term memories (VLTM). Nearly 400 adults of various ages were shown photographs from their high school yearbooks, and were asked to identify individuals. Even after 34 years, ex-students were still able to name 90% of their classmates. This shows that people have accurate VLTMs. </li></ul>
  • 18. Capacity of LTM <ul><li>Merkle (1988) estimated (using the number of synapses) that LTM may have a capacity of between one thousand and one million gigabytes. </li></ul>
  • 19. Encoding in LTM <ul><li>What did Baddeley (1966) find about the LTM and how information is encoded? </li></ul><ul><li>Page 14 </li></ul>
  • 20. Key to this model <ul><li>The key to this model is rehearsal . If the information is not rehearsed then it will not proceed onto the next store. </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>Quick quiz </li></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>1. What E is the sensory memory for sounds? </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>Echoic </li></ul>
  • 24. <ul><li>2. What L is the last stage in the MSM of Memory? </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>LTM </li></ul>
  • 26. <ul><li>3. Which S worked with Atkinson to produce the MSM of memory? </li></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>Shiffrin </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>4. What E is the duration of the STM. </li></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>Eighteen </li></ul>
  • 30. <ul><li>5. What R is the tendancy to remember words from the end of a list? </li></ul>
  • 31. <ul><li>Recency effect </li></ul>
  • 32. <ul><li>6. What S did Peterson show was mainly encoded acoustically? </li></ul>
  • 33. <ul><li>STM </li></ul>
  • 34. <ul><li>7. What P is the tendancy to remember words from the beginning of a list? </li></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>Primacy Effect </li></ul>
  • 36. <ul><li>8. What S is the capacity of the STM? </li></ul>
  • 37. <ul><li>Seven </li></ul>
  • 38. <ul><li>9. What C is unlimited in the LTM? </li></ul>
  • 39. <ul><li>Capacity </li></ul>
  • 40. <ul><li>10. What I is the sensory memory for images? </li></ul>
  • 41. <ul><li>Iconic </li></ul>
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