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1. AS level Psychology The core studies The Social Approach 2. Social Psychology The MILGRAM Experiment 3. Social Context WW2 ended in 1945 <ul><li>The…
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  • 1. AS level Psychology The core studies The Social Approach
  • 2. Social Psychology The MILGRAM Experiment
  • 3. Social Context WW2 ended in 1945 <ul><li>The behaviour of the German people during the the holocaust </li></ul><ul><li>The Nurenberg trials </li></ul><ul><li>The article by Hannah Arendt </li></ul><ul><li>Eichmann in Jerusalem : a report on the banality of evil </li></ul>
  • 4. Milgram's Questions ... <ul><li>Why do we obey authority? </li></ul><ul><li>What conditions foster obedience? </li></ul><ul><li>What conditions foster independent behaviour? </li></ul>
  • 5. Milgram's hypotheses ... <ul><li>That American people would not obey orders that led to them harming another person </li></ul><ul><li>That ‘German men’ are different to American men </li></ul>
  • 6. Milgram’s method <ul><li>A LAB experiment at YALE University </li></ul><ul><li>there was NO IV </li></ul><ul><li>could be called a ‘non naturalistic’ observation </li></ul>
  • 7. Milgram’s participants <ul><li>A self selecting (volunteer) sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(answered advertisements asking for help with Yale university research into memory & learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>40 20 - 50 year old men </li></ul><ul><li>They were paid $4 for one hour of their time </li></ul>
  • 8. Milgram’s advertisement You can see that a wide range of occupations were sampled
  • 9. The Procedure <ul><li>The participant was paired with a colleague of Milgram (the stooge was Mr Wallace) </li></ul><ul><li>Told they were taking part in an experiment on Memory / Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Shock machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slight/severe/danger of severe shock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volts ranged between 15 - 450 volts </li></ul>
  • 10. The Procedure <ul><li>The participant (teacher) given a mild 15v electric shock </li></ul><ul><li>Then stooge wired up to the electric shock machine in next room </li></ul><ul><li>The experiment began </li></ul>
  • 11. The TASK <ul><li>Teacher read series of word pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. blue sky, green grass, red balloon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learner had to memorise these </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher then reads out one word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Green ….. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learner to respond with the ‘pair match’ </li></ul>
  • 12. The TASK
  • 13. If a mistake was made <ul><li>Teacher told to give electric shock to learner </li></ul><ul><li>Rising by 15 volts each mistake from 15 volts to 450 volts </li></ul>
  • 14. What happened? <ul><li>The participants shook, trembled, and sweated </li></ul><ul><li>They were pressed to continue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“You must go on” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The experiment is important” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Please continue” </li></ul></ul>Read your text book and notes FOR MORE INFO...
  • 15. What happened? <ul><li>The learner shouted and yelled </li></ul><ul><li>He could be heard through the wall </li></ul><ul><li>He remained silent after 300 volts </li></ul>
  • 16. How many went to 450 volts? <ul><li>65% of participants went to 450 volts! </li></ul><ul><li>26 of the 40 participants would have followed orders and killed the stooge for making too many mistakes! </li></ul>
  • 17. Remembering Methodology …. <ul><li>What was the dependent variable? </li></ul><ul><li>The level of obedience measured by the voltage of the electric shock that was given </li></ul>
  • 18. Was this experiment ethical? <ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>If you were a member of an Ethics committee would you allow Milgram to repeat this study? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul>
  • 19. Did the ends justify the means? <ul><li>Was the knowledge gained worth the pain of the participants? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we decide this question? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should decide this question? </li></ul>
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