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1. Aggression mock exam: Choose any two of the following questions: <ul><li>Outline and evaluate: </li></ul><ul><li>At least two…
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  • 1. Aggression mock exam: Choose any two of the following questions: <ul><li>Outline and evaluate: </li></ul><ul><li>At least two neural and hormonal explanations for human aggression (25 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>At least two evolutionary explanations to aggressive behaviours (25 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>At least two explanations for group display of aggression in humans (25 marks) </li></ul>
  • 2. Review of last lesson: Summarise neural explanations for eating & satiation
  • 3. Evolutionary explanations for food preferences <ul><li>Our food preferences originate from our ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, we’re trying to understand people’s eating habits by looking at their food preferences </li></ul>
  • 4. The EEA <ul><li>EEA=environment of evolutionary adaptation. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the environment our ancestors lived and evolved in. </li></ul><ul><li>We evolved from the African savannah some 2 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>We survived because of our ability to adapt to our environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestors passed these adaptive genes to us, hence the reason the human species survived. </li></ul>
  • 5. Testing evolutionary explanations for food preferences <ul><li>We can’t go back in time to see for sure how our ancestors ate. </li></ul><ul><li>So we compare preferences with those of monkeys who face similar adaptive problems today that we did 2 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Craig Stanford observed Chimps in an African national park: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chimps had similar problems to us 2 million years ago in that meat is also scarce and where they’re starved for meat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore when they do manage a kill, they go straight for the fattiest part: The brain and bone marrow rather than nutritious flesh. </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Early diets <ul><li>Originally hunters and gatherers who ate animals and plants. </li></ul><ul><li>We had a preference for fatty foods because fat was a vital energy resource for survival </li></ul><ul><li>This is the reason why we still prefer high calorie foods, although it isn’t necessary for our life styles nor our survival. </li></ul>
  • 7. Commentary: Supporting & opposing diet preferences <ul><li>Gibson & Wardle confirmed the idea that our ancestors preferred calorie rich food. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In their experiment, they allowed children to choose fruit and veg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: Children chose potatoes & bananas which are very high in calories. This isn’t because they were sweet or nutritious, but because they had the most calories. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cordain et al: Suggested the perhaps our ancestors were vegetarian as originally we consumed most of our calories from non-animal resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Abrams the anthropologist opposed this and said that evidence shows that all societies show a preference for animal foods and fats. Also, grains and plants available wouldn’t have been sufficient for our ancestors to survive from. </li></ul>
  • 8. Preference for meat <ul><li>Quality of plant foods declined (due to receding forests 2 mill years ago) = preference for meat </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil evidence: Ancestors ate mostly animal organs such a liver, kidneys & brain (extremely rich in nutrients). </li></ul><ul><li>This helped our brains to evolve according to our need to adapt to the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Without meat, we wouldn’t have been able to grow our brains and therefore adapt to our environment and survive until today (Milton 2008) </li></ul>
  • 9. Taste aversion: Why we prefer certain tastes to others. <ul><li>Humans learnt that certain foods are better for health. </li></ul><ul><li>They therefore chose nutrient rich food and developed an aversion for foods that didn’t enhance their chances for survival. </li></ul><ul><li>This was confirmed in lab tests on rats. Farmers for example found that when they tried to poison rats, it wasn’t useful as they would only eat small amounts of poison, which would make them sick. They would therefore associate ill health with the poison and therefore developed an aversion for it. </li></ul><ul><li>Detecting toxins: Our bitter taste evolved as a way to detect poisons in plants = ensure survival. </li></ul>
  • 10. Commentary on taste aversion <ul><li>Seligman supported the idea that we avoided certain types of food because they didn’t enhance our chances of survival. He called this “biological preparedness”. </li></ul><ul><li>This was supported by research on cancer patients undergoing chemo and radio therapy (Bernstein & Webster) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When gave novel tasting ice cream prior to treatment, people developed an aversion to it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body associates that taste with illness and therefore creates an aversion so that it isn’t eaten again. </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Then technically, we should all have the same food preferences, no? <ul><li>Yes, that’s true: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We know that all children love sweet foods and most of us have to control the amount of fatty foods we eat in order to maintain health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But culture and food experiences also play a part. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, our innate preferences are universal, they are just refined by our experiences. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Review of evolutionary explanations for food preferences: The EEA Comparisons with monkeys & what they prefer (according to Stanford) Early diets & our preferences now Preferences for meat in EEA & now Webster & Bernstein’s cancer patients
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