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1. Psychoanalysis A therapeutic technique developed by Sigmund Freud 2. Assumptions underlying Psychoanalysis <ul><li>There is a level of mental life, not…
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  • 1. Psychoanalysis A therapeutic technique developed by Sigmund Freud
  • 2. Assumptions underlying Psychoanalysis <ul><li>There is a level of mental life, not readily available to us which lies in our unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional difficulties often stem from wishes and motives buried in the unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens during childhood plays a powerful part in shaping adult behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>A thorough scrutiny of early childhood experiences can help us to overcome difficulties and blocks in our adult relationships. </li></ul>
  • 3. Aims of therapy <ul><li>Establish a relationship between therapist and patient </li></ul><ul><li>Help the person to understand what is happening to them – gain insight </li></ul><ul><li>To provide support and bring about an improvement in their condition </li></ul>
  • 4. Techniques used in Psychoanalysis <ul><li>Catharsis – releasing repressed feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of unconscious motivations through the use of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dream analysis – interpretation of dreams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest content – what the dreamer remembers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latent content – the symbolic meaning of the dream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free association – saying whatever comes to mind </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Analysis of Resistances <ul><li>The resistances of the patient to the interpretations offered by the psychoanalyst were viewed as an indication of sensitive areas and interpreted as typical defensive strategies. </li></ul>
  • 6. Transference <ul><li>The most important procedure during psychoanalysis is transference. </li></ul><ul><li>The patient’s unconscious desires and feelings (particularly towards parents) were thought to be transferred onto the therapist. </li></ul><ul><li>An analysis of the relationship between the patient and the therapist was though to be an important source of insights, to help the patient to understand the unconscious motivations behind their behaviour or mental state. </li></ul>
  • 7. Time span of Psychoanalysis <ul><li>Traditional psychoanalysis involves several sessions a week over a period of several years. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis is expensive and not offered on the NHS. </li></ul><ul><li>Other shorter forms of psychotherapy – talking therapies are available. These are also focused on assessing the person’s needs, helping patients through crises, providing support, and helping the person to change their lifestyle. </li></ul>
  • 8. Evaluation of Psychoanalysis <ul><li>It is difficult to scientifically validate Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, as most of the concepts are not measurable. </li></ul><ul><li>There is mixed support for the effectiveness of Psychoanalytic therapy – some research shows that it is no more effective than leaving patients to recover on their own (Eysenck). </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical issues – control of the psychotherapist over the patient. </li></ul>
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