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1. Features of Medical AdherenceMethods of Health PromotionTheories of Health Belief<br /><ul><li>Bulpitt (hypertension)Lustman (Depression)Watt…
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  • 1. Features of Medical AdherenceMethods of Health PromotionTheories of Health Belief<br /><ul><li>Bulpitt (hypertension)Lustman (Depression)Watt (asthma)Cowpe (Chip pan fires)Dannenberg (bicycle helmets)Janis & Feshbeck (fear arousal)Becker (Health Belief Model compliance & asthma)Rotter (locus of control)Bandura (self efficacy)</li></ul>A person will stop binge drinking if …Applying the Health Belief Model to Binge Drinking …<br />Summarise the 6 components of the health belief model here …123456<br />Describing Three Studies into Health Belief in 10 lines each …<br />Becker (HBM) – Compliance & Asthma12345678910 Rotter Locus of Control12345678910Bandura & Adams Self Efficacy12345678910<br />AAll 3 health belief theories come from the cognitive approach. What are the assumptions of this approach and using evidence explain the strengths and weaknesses of these three theories of health belief.IWhat issues would be best to use to evaluate these theories of health belief and why?MWhich two methods are most commonly used by the studies testing theories of health belief. How would you evaluates these methods?<br />Preparing to compare & contrast Locus of Control & Self Efficacy …<br /><ul><li>Outline how theories of health belief can help us to understand the choices people make in choosing to live healthy lifestyles.(10 marks)Compare & contrast any two theories of health belief.(15 marks) Reductionist Rotter’s study used quantitative dataBandura’s study used qualitative & quantitative dataBoth have research evidence to back up theoryBoth are useful in explaining real life health behavioursBoth are cognitive theories Both are cognitive theories Can you think of one other difference?Can you think of one other difference?Free WillHolisticDeterminstic</li></ul>Method of Health promotionStrengthsWeaknesses<br />Can you identify which of the methods of health promotion these are:- Media campaigns? Legislation? Fear arousal?<br />Cowpe ‘Chip Pan Fire Prevention’<br />Can you find the missing questions for these answers based on this study?<br />To test the effectiveness of an advertising campaign about the dangers of chip pan firesQuasi experiment in 10 UK television areas between 1976-1984 + quantitative consumer surveys60 second commercials called ‘In attendance’ and ‘Overfilling’ – showing cause of fires and how to put it out Number of reported chip pan fires analysed for each area7% decline in chip pan fires in Central TV area and 25% decline in GranadaLargest reduction was during the campaign with a reduction in chip pan fires of 33% in Tyne TeesLess impact where areas received more than one television channel and saw campaigns more than onceQuestionnaires showed increase in awareness of chip pan fires from 62% before campaigns to 90% after campaignsPeople mentioning chip pan fires as a danger increased from 12% to 28% in YorkshireTelevision campaigns are effective in changing people’s behaviour but overexposure to the message is a danger<br />Dannenberg ’Bicycle Helmet Laws & Educational Campaigns’<br />Can you find the missing answers to these questions based on this study?<br />What was the aim of Dannenberg’s study?What was the methodology used by Dannenberg?Who were the participants in Dannenberg’s study?What design did Dannenberg use?What was Dannenberg’s procedure?What were the response rates in Dannenberg’s study?By how much had usage of a helmet increased in Howard County?Who used bicycle helmets most after this legislation?How successful is legislation in changing people’s healthy behaviours as shown in Dannenberg?How did Dannenberg test for validity in this research?<br />Janis & Feshbeck ‘Effects of Fear Arousal’<br />Can you find the missing questions & answers for this study?<br />AThe studies in this section are a mixture of social and cognitive. They deal with the way in which environmental influences or situational influences can have an effect on individual thinking about health. Try to give at least one strength and one weakness using the evidence you have about the approaches in this section.IWhat issues would be best to use to evaluate these theories of health belief and why? Using the evidence you have you might use samples & sampling; ethics; individual vs situational; determinism vs free will; usefulness. Write a couple of sentences using some of the issues and evidence you have …MCowpe is a quasi experiment… Dannenberg is a natural experiment …Janis & Feshbeck is a laboratory experiment. What are the strengths & weaknesses of experimental work? Use examples form the studies to explain your points …<br />Marking Exercise – try being an examiner!!!<br />Review the effectiveness of health promotion methods <br />(15marks)<br /><ul><li>1-2 marks3-5 marks6-8 marks9-10 marks Very little psychological terminologyLacks detailNo focus on questionUnstructuredLacks organisationBasic psychological terminologyGenerally accurateCoherentSome focus on question but weakReasonable use of examplesSome structureCompetent psychological terminologyAccurate & relevantExamples & elaboration reasonably detailedGood focus on questionWell structured & organisedComprehensive use of psychological terminologyAccurate & detailed evidenceExamples & elaboration very goodExcellent focus on questionCompletely structured and organised</li></ul>Good start?<br />There are three main types of health promotion methods. These are media campaigns, legislation and fear arousal. <br />Highlight or underline good points in this answer …See where it is in the mark scheme …Make some suggestions for improvements …Media campaigns can be very useful in promoting health. They can be television adverts, posters and leaflets or even the radio but they all attempt to get health messages across to the general public. A strength of media campaigns is that they get noticed by almost everyone as in this modern era, the majority of people own televisions or some form of media so they see or hear health promotion regularly. Another strength is that they can target specific audiences, for example, if they were to target adults they might show the advert in the evening when adults are more likely to be watching the television. <br />One weakness of media campaigns is that they can be very expensive to produce and so they have to be sure that the media campaign will work or they will lose a lot of money. A study by Cowpe aimed to test the effectiveness of an advertising campaign into chip pan fire prevention. It was a quasi experiment where the campaign was shown in ten UK regional television areas. The advert consisted of two 60 second commercial showing a procedure of how to safely use the chip pans and how to prevent fires. The results showed that the campaign had a positive effect on the prevention of chip pan fires as reported cases decreased over the year. This gives evidence to show media campaigns are useful.<br />Is this answer using enough issues to evaluate?Can you make some suggestions of issues which could be used?Another method of health promotion is legislation. This involves the passing of laws, in this case, passing laws to increase and promote health. One advantage of using legislation is that if the law is passed then it might scare people to break it, so health may improve after a certain time. One disadvantage of legislation is that you would need to make the public aware of the new law in order for you to see the positive results. You might do this by using media campaigns so more than one of the three health promotion methods can link together.<br />Another weakness of legislation is that you would need to have a punishment for any law breakers but you would need to decide on the harshness of the punishment. A study by Dannenberg looked into passing a law for wearing bicycle helmets. The law was passed in Howard County in USA but there were also 2 other control groups without the law, but one already had an educational campaign in place. Results. showed that reported usage in Howard County had increased more than the other two control groups. Interestingly most of the children in Howard County were aware of the law so they must have promoted the legislation well. This provides evidence to suggest that legislation is a useful technique when promoting health.<br />Does the answer evaluate the effectiveness of health promotion methods? Is it answering the question?Make some sugegstionsIssues?The last method of health promotion is fear arousal. This is showing the consequences of poor health in the hope that it will scare people into becoming healthy. One advantage is that if you get the right amount of fear is in place, it could have a massive impact on improving people’s health. <br />Is this a good conclusion to the question? Why?One weakness however is that too much or too little fear would have no impact on improving health so it would be a waste of time and money. A study by Janis and Feshback looked into fear arousal by showing the effects of poor dental hygiene to a 9th grade freshman class at a US high school. There were four groups: one with strong fear, one with moderate fear, another with minimal fear and another which was the control group learnt about something different. Each group was shown the consequences of poor dental hygiene but each had differing levels of fear. Results showed that the moderate and minimal fear groups increased conformity more than the strong fear group. This shows that you need to get the right level of fear to change health. This provides evidence to show fear arousal is useful in promoting health.<br />Write one paragraph of your own to answer the question here …_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________-15In conclusion, all 3 methods of health promotion can be very useful in promoting health and they can all link together in some way. For example, if you pass a law to promote health you would need to use media campaigns to tell the public and within these campaigns you might have minimal fear arousal. After reviewing the effectiveness of health promotion methods I think media campaigns are the most effective as nearly everyone has access to them so they can see and hear the campaign many times.<br />Bulpit et al (1988 ) Importance of well being in hypertensive patients<br />P<br />A<br />F<br />No more!<br />C<br /> <br />Lustman et al ( 2000 ) Use of Fluoxetine in Treatment for Depression in Diabetes<br />P<br />A<br />Adherence<br />F<br />Adherence<br />C=<br />Watt et al ( 2003 ) Improving Adherence to Taking Medication for Asthma<br />AP<br />Fun!<br />+<br />F<br />C<br />AThe studies in this section are a mixture of social and cognitive. They deal with the way in which environmental influences or situational influences can have an effect on individual thinking about health. Try to give at least one strength and one weakness using the evidence you have about the approaches in this section.IWhat issues would be best to use to evaluate studies into adherence? What about ethics? Ethnocentrism? Validity?MBulpitt is a review article … Lustman is a lab experiment …Watt is a field experiment … using an example from each study identify a strength and weakness of the methodology …<br />Healthy Living Crossword Test Yourself<br />1 D2 C3 LEGISLATION4 CON5 VICARIOUS6 EXTERNA7 LWTEOPB8 LUSTMAN9 COMPLIANCEEBUN10 DESENSITISATIONEROFGFI11 COGNITIVET12 PLACEBOA13 AN14 FNS15 BULPITT16 RUATAR17 INTERNALLHNOGHY18 MEDIA19 SELFEFFICACYSAUMLIREES20 FEARAROUSALNR<br /><ul><li>Across:3Passing laws to prohibit unsafe behaviours is called ... (11)5Learning from others is called ... experience (9)6If we see our health behaviours as being in the hands of others we have an ... locus of control (8)8Researcher who studied treatment of depression (7)9Our level of uptake of health behaviours is measured by our level of ... (10)10Process by which Bandura gradually introduced patients to snakes (15)11This approach looks at internal mental processes (9)12Often used by psychologists to test drugs, this has no effect (7)15Researcher who investigated hypertensive patients (7)17If we believe we have control over our health choices it is because we have a high ... locus of control (8)18Method of health promotion which relies on adverts, posters, leaflets (5)19Bandura's theory that we need to believe in our own strengths and abilities (4+8)20Using psychology to increase the impact of health promotion campaigns (4+7)Down:1Researcher who investigated legislation into bicycle helmets (10)2Rationally weighing up decision involves this kind of analysis (4+7+8)4Researcher who investigated media campaigns into chip pan fires (5)7Rotter suggested this has an impact on our health choices (5+2+7)13Becker studied compliance with a medical regime for this illness (6)14This might improve children's adherence to taking medication (8)15Researcher who suggested that self efficacy is a strong indicator of our health behaviours (7)Revision Tips!!!Making crosswords might be one good way of testing your knowledgeMaking revision cards as small as possible of key terms from evidencePractising sample examination answers against the clockUsing pictures and colours to remind yourself of important details in the evidenceSticking post-it notes on your wall and moving them aroundMaking sure you have good’ “so what sentences” to demonstrate your understanding16Routine for taking medication (7)</li></ul>Exam Questions ‘Healthy Living’<br /><ul><li>Outline how theories of health belief help us to understand people’s choices about their health behaviours. (10 marks)
  • 2. Compare any two theories of health belief.(15 marks)
  • 3. Describe one study to illustrate a theory of health belief.(10 marks)
  • 4. Evaluate the usefulness of theories of health belief.(15 marks)
  • 5. Describe one method of health promotion and explain how it works.(10 marks)
  • 6. How useful are the different methods of health promotion in promoting healthy behaviours.
  • 7. (15 marks)
  • 8. Describe one study which shows that legislation is an effective means of health promotion.
  • 9. (10 marks)
  • 10. What problems do psychologists face when trying to research methods of health promotion?
  • 11. (15 marks)
  • 12. Describe one reason for non-adherence to medical advice.(10 marks)
  • 13. Evaluate studies onto adherence to medical advice.(15 marks)
  • 14. Explain why people do not always adhere to medical advice.(10 marks)
  • 15. Using the issue of self reports, what are the strengths & weakness of using this method to investigate healthy behaviours.(15 marks)</li></ul>3 Things I need to do in order to make sure I can learn the material in this topic are:-123<br />Synoptic Checklist for ‘Healthy Living’<br />PhysiologicalCognitiveIndividual DifferencesDevelopmentalSocialBehaviouristPsychodynamicexperimentCase studySelf reportCorrelationobservationethicsEcological validityLongitudinal & snapshotDeterminism & free willReductionism & holismNature / nurtureethnocentrismPsychology as a scienceIndividual / situationalusefulnessBeckerbeRotterBanduraCowpeDannenbergJanis & FeshbeckBulpittLustmanWatt<br />
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    Jul 23, 2017
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