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1. Q1 An act against the law. However laws change so we have also to consider: Historical factors i.e. homosexuality used to be a Definition of crime crime Technological…
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  • 1. Q1 An act against the law. However laws change so we have also to consider: Historical factors i.e. homosexuality used to be a Definition of crime crime Technological advances i.e. no internet fraud 50 yeas ago Cultural factors: what is a crime in a culture might not be a crime in another culture Q2 When someone commits a crime or a behaviour Definition of recidivism for which they have previously been punished or treated. Q3 Define antisocial behaviour Any behaviour that affects other people negatively often means aggressive behaviour. Q4 Men commit 4 times more crime than women Men between the ages of 15-25 commit more violent crimes People commit more crimes in cities then in the countryside Main patterns of crime Middle/upper class people commit more fraud than working class people Working class people commit more violent crime than upper/middle class people You will need those in your evaluations Q5-causes of criminal behaviour Stereotyping: thinking of a whole group as having characteristics usually using evidence Stereotyping and labelling form a few members of that group. Based on these stereotypes people are labelled i.e. as thieves by the majority group. Q6-causes of criminal behaviour It is when an observer’s beliefs or expectations about a person or group influence their social Describe the self-fulfilling prophecy. interaction with them thus actually eliciting or creating the expected behaviour and confirming their stereotypes or prejudices.
  • 2. Q7-causes of criminal behaviour Jahoda (1954) relates more directly to the creation of anti- social behaviour. Rosenthal and Jacobson (1977) Madon et al. (2003)mother expectation of underage drinking What evidence is there for the self-fulfilling Evaluation: prophecy? Ecologically valid research on the creation of antisocial behaviour through self-fulfilling prophecy is difficult to conduct because of all the variables involved and because of ethical problems. Q8-causes of criminal behaviour The Rosenthal and Jacobson study focuses on education, the result may not apply to criminal behaviour Madon study shows that individuals with high self-esteem respond to positive SFP whereas individuals with low self- esteem respond to negative SFP so SFP does not affect Evaluate the self-fulfilling prophecy as an everybody in the same way. explanation of criminal/antisocial behaviour Jahoda is powerful evidence but it was a natural experiment therefore there was low control of variables. SFP does not take into account other factors: biological factors, social learning theory, social factors such as poverty. What patterns of crime does it explain? Q9-causes of criminal behaviour Personality traits refer to characteristics of individuals which remain consistent across time and situations. Eysenck suggested that there are three main dimensions along which people vary: Introversion-extroversion: Neuroticism- stability Psychoticism: Describe Eysenck trait approach to personality Eysenck argues that a person’s position on the personality dimension on the introversion-extroversion dimension is caused by the level of arousal in the Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) and that their position on the neuroticism- stability dimension is caused by the stability or instability of the autonomic nervous system. Eysenck suggests that these differences in the CNS are genetic. He proposed that criminals have high scores on extroversion, neuroticism and psychoticism. Q10-causes of criminal behaviour 1.Eysenck’s theory of personality depends on the use of psychometric measurement, derived from questionnaire responses these could have been influence by social desirability 2. Eysenck claimed that his studies of offenders supported his theory but Farrington et al. ( 1982) reviewed a number of studies and concluded that officially defined offenders (e.g. prisoners) Evaluation of Eysenck’s trait approach to generally scored higher than controls on P and N but not E. personality 3. It explains why twin studies show a higher concordance rate for MZ twins than DZ twins (Ishikawa and Raine's ,2002) It also explain the results of adoptions studies Mednick et al.'s (1984). 4. it does not take into account social factors or explain the Raine’s findings on the abnormal brain structure of murderers Q11-causes of criminal behaviour Social learning theory (observational learning) describes how people learn by observing others performing a behaviour: aggressive behaviour according to Bandura like any other behaviour is learned from the social environment. According to Bandura(1977) there are four requirements for Describe the social learning theory as an observational learning to take place explanation of criminal/antisocial behaviour Attention to the model Retention: the observer must be able to retain a memory of the observed behaviour Reproduction: the observer must be able to reproduce the observed behaviour Motivation: the observer must be motivated to reproduce the observed behaviour. This could be in the hope of a reward. Q12-causes of criminal behaviour Support: Bandura et al. (1965) but lab experiment therefore... Huesman and Eron (1986) longitudinal study Anderson and Dill (2000) lab experiment Against: Evaluate the social learning theory as an Charlton et al. (2000) but natural experiment therefore lack of control... explanation of antisocial/criminal behaviour Does not explain Raine’s findings on the abnormal brain structure of murderers but as the brain is a plastic organ it could be that it has changed as a result of long-term criminal/aggressive behaviour Explains why we tend to see families with patterns of aggressive behaviour but does not explain the results of adoption studies Mednick et al.'s (1984) Doesnot take into account social factors such as poverty
  • 3. Q13-causes of criminal behaviour 1. Individual differences. 2. Family and social differences 3. The context and the content of the message. Aggression is more likely to be imitated if it is What factors mediate the effects of the media on seen as an effective means of succeeding, violence? painful effects are not shown, it is seen to be used for the good, and the aggressor is an ordinary person. Q14-causes of criminal behaviour 1. they lack ecological validity 2. Field studies lack control and allow for the possibility that other environmental factors What are the limitations of the studies off the contribute to the aggression. 3.they are often co relational studies therefore they effect of media on violent behaviour? cannot show a cause and effect link. 4.self-report are subjective. 5. it is difficult to agree on a definition of aggression. Q15-causes of criminal behaviour Bushman (1995) showed that people who are generally violent seek out media violence. Other How do individual differences influence studies show that aggressive children not only whether the violent behaviour portrayed in the watch more media violence but also are more media is going to be imitated or not? likely to identify with the characters and believe that the violence they see on TV reflects real life. Key issue: factors influencing the accuracy of eyewitness memory Q16- Eyewitness testimony Evidence given in court or in police Definition of eyewitness testimony investigations by someone who has witnessed a crime or an accident Q17- Eyewitness testimony Loftus and Palmer (1974)- Lab experiment Influence of leading questions Pickel (1998)- Lab experiment Three studies into EWT Weapon focus Yuille and Cutshall (1986) case study You must be able to describe these studies in detail and evaluate them for 6 AO2
  • 4. Q18- Eyewitness testimony Because of ethical considerations we cannot carry out field experiments so they are the best we can do They have high control therefore they are replicable and reliable They lack ecological validity explain.... Evaluation of lab experiments into EWT The participants know that their testimonies have no consequences they might behave in a different way in real life when there are consequences The participants might be influenced by demand characteristics The participants are all students explain why it matters Q19- Eyewitness testimony Leading questions (loftus and Palmer, 1974) Weapon focus (Pickle, 1998) Reconstructive memory Repression What are the main factors which might influence Trace decay EWT? Cue-dependent forgetting You need to be able to describe and evaluate these factors linking them with EWT Q20- Eyewitness testimony A question which is phrased in such a way that it suggests and answer. This may distort the What is a leading question? accuracy of memory i.e. did you see the broken glass. The use of “the” implies that there was broken glass. Q21- Eyewitness testimony There is supporting evidence: Loftus and Palmer (1974) However it was a lab experiment (see Q.18) Only 17% of participants were influenced in the Barn experiment so it does not have the same effect on Evaluate the influence of leading questions everybody. There are limit to what can be suggested if the information is obviously wrong the participants do not alter their testimony. It also depends on who suggests the information. Q22- Eyewitness testimony The attention and focus of an individual is channelled Define weapon focus towards the source of the threat (i.e. gun) and away from other aspects of the scene. Q23- Eyewitness testimony Supportive evidence: Pickel (1998) Challenge: Yuille and Cutshall (1986) However the more familiar people are with guns the less weapon focus seems to occur and in Yuille and Cutshall Evaluate Weapon focus as a cause for the witnesses were in a gun shop which suggest that they inaccuracy in EWT were familiar with guns. It explains why people who have witnesses involving weapons might be unable to recall details of the scene or indentify the perpetrator reliably.
  • 5. Q24- Eyewitness testimony Bartlett argued that people do not passively record memories as exact copies of the information they receive, but actively try to make sense of it in terms of what they already know (schemas). This means that the testimonies What is reconstructive memory and does it given by witnesses will be a reconstruction of what they influence EWT? have witnessed rather than completely accurate information so the original information might have been distorted. This explains that witnesses to the same scenes might give different accounts of what they witnessed. Q25- Eyewitness testimony Repression is an ego defence mechanism according to the psychodynamic approach whereby anxiety-provoking material is placed in the unconscious where it cannot be accessed. EWT: if someone witnesses a traumatic crime they are What is repression and how does it affect EWT? likely to repress the most traumatic aspects of the crime so they are likely to have “forgotten” the most traumatic details. Hypnosis is sometimes used to try to retrieve these details however as people are very suggestible under hypnosis the material obtained in this way is often rejected by the courts so this is rarely used. Q26- Eyewitness testimony When new memories are formed new connections between neurons develop (engram) if the information is not rehearsed these engrams fade (decay) and the memory is forgotten. EWT: the longer the time between the event What is trace decay and how does it affect and the interview the more likely details will have been EWT? forgotten although it could be argued that when people have witnessed a crime or an accident they speak about it to their friends and family and they think about it this is a way of rehearsing. Q27- Eyewitness testimony According to this theory memories do not decay they are present in the memory system but Explain cue-dependent forgetting. What are the cannot be accessed. It is possible to access lost implications for eyewitness memory? memories by using the right cues such as moods (state cues) or surrounding (context). Techniques such as reconstruction and cognitive interviews are based on this theory. They try to provide cues to aid recall. Q28- Eyewitness testimony Geiselman (1985) four stages: 1. Reinstate feelings and context at the time of the event. 2. Tell the story with maximum details even it Explain the cognitive interview technique. they seem irrelevant. 3.Recall the event in different order. 4. Tell the story from the pint of view off another witness. Q29- Eyewitness testimony Fisher et al. (1990) found recall increased by 46% with 90% accuracy (research done in real life situations). Kohnken, 1999 meta study reviewing the findings of 53 studies found that it produced and increase of 34% in the amount of correct information recalled. Evaluate the cognitive interview technique as a It is very time consuming therefore it is used only in technique to aid eyewitness memory. serious crime. it generate too much information for the police to deal with. It requires lengthy training which is expensive therefore only relatively few officers are properly trained. Police forces tend to use only the first two stages of the procedure.
  • 6. Q 30-Treating offenders It is a cognitive behavioural technique 1. cognitive preparation: offenders analyse their patterns of behaviour to identify the triggers and the thinking What are the stages in the anger management processes during angry outbursts. programmes? 2. Skill acquisition: offenders are trained to avoid the situations which provoke anger or to deal with them aggressively. 3. application practice: offenders are given the opportunity to practice their skills in a safe environment i.e. role play. Q 31-Treating offenders 1. few studies in the effectiveness but Feinder et al. (1984) seems to show reduction of violent behaviour in young offenders. 2. Expensive programmes not always well managed in penal institutions. 3. Long term effectiveness has not been established. 4. does not address the cause of violent behaviour. 5. not all violent crimes are caused by anger Evaluate anger management as a technique to 6. requires commitment from the offender but also from prison reduce violent behaviour. authorities as the programme takes at least 10 sessions (often longer) 7. being able to defend oneself is very important in prison .... Q 32-Treating offenders It is a behaviour modification technique based on operant conditioning (learning approach) in which What is token economy? desirable behaviour is rewarded by tokens. These tokens have no intrinsic value but can be exchanged for primary reinforcers. In penal institutions, it often also involves the use of negative reinforcements and punishment for undesirable behaviour. Q 33-Treating offenders 1. Ethical problems if food and drink are used as tokens. 2. Negative reinforcement and punishment lead to resentment which might prepare the offender to act violently in revenge. Evaluate token economy as a means to reduce 3. When tokens are discontinued undesirable behaviour violent behaviour. might reoccur. 4. does not address the cause of the violent behaviour. 5. easy and relatively cheap to use, very little training required. 6. Violent behaviour might be reinforced by other prisoners (i.e. respect or self-defence) Q34- How science works What is an independent variable? The independent variable is the variable manipulated by the experimenter. Q35- How science works What is the dependent variable? The variable that is measured.
  • 7. Q36- How science works What is a confounding variable? Uncontrolled variable affecting or interfering with the experiment. Q37- How science works Researcher effects: Researcher can affect the behaviour of the participants, thus affecting the results of the study. The researcher might unwittingly communicate his expectations to the participants. Or it can be in the interpretation of data, a researcher may read into things How can the relationship between the more of what he or she would like to find. Demand experimenter and the participants affect the characteristics: Participants might read things into the results of an experiment? situation and start changing their behaviour they respond to the perceived demands of the study. Or they might guess the aim of the experiment and alter their behaviour. Q38- How science works Many of the concepts used in hypothesis are abstract, operationalising an hypothesis is saying What means to operationalise a hypothesis? what you are going to observe , for example if you are speaking about measuring aggression you might count the number of punches given by participants. Q39- How science works It predicts what change (s) will take place in the dependent variable when the independent What is an experimental hypothesis? variable is manipulated. The IV will affect the DV Q40- How science works What is the difference between a one-tail A two-tail hypothesis predicts that there will be hypothesis and a two-tail hypothesis? a change in the DV when the IV is manipulated. A one-tail hypothesis predicts in which direction the change will take place. Q41- How science works The null hypothesis states that there will be no changes due to the manipulation of the IV. What is a null hypothesis? The IV will NOT affect the DV
  • 8. Q42- How science works Reliability refers to whether something is consistent If you carried out the study again would it produce the same results? What is reliability? A study which is replicable is reliable You must be able to comment on the reliability of the key studies Q43- How science works A study is said to be valid if it measures what it says it measures. Ecological validity is part of this What is validity? You must be able to comment on the validity of the key studies
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