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1. What is stress?<br />What effect does stress have on us?<br /> Stress?<br /> 2. A pattern of negative physiological and psychological states,…
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  • 1. What is stress?<br />What effect does stress have on us?<br /> Stress?<br />
  • 2. A pattern of negative physiological and psychological states, occurring as a response to stressors, when people perceive threats to their well being, which they may be unable to meet.’ <br />Lazarus and Folkman (1984)<br />Definition<br />
  • 3. Stressors are the things that cause us stress e.g.:<br />Exams<br />Noise<br />Heat<br />Life events e.g. Bereavement, Divorce<br />Work<br />Stressors<br />
  • 4. Flight or Fight response<br />Stress hormones kick start response<br />Breath faster – increases supply of oxygen<br />Heart beats faster – pumps blood (+glucose & oxygen)<br />Blood goes to muscles<br />Muscles tense for action<br />Unnecessary processes eg digestion, slow down<br />Can be measured by monitoring hormone levels,<br />heart rate, blood pressure etc<br />Physiological Response to Stress<br />
  • 5. Cognitive Responses:<br />Confused thought<br />Emotions – anxiety, worry, depression<br />Learned helplessness – little mental activity<br />Behavioural Responses:<br />Poor co-ordination – fumbling, trembling<br />Fidgeting<br />Aggression<br />Slow movements, lacking motivation<br />Can be measured through observation or self-<br />report methods<br />Psychological Response to Stress<br />
  • 6. Some stress is necessary to keep us alert and occupied. <br />Yerkes - Dodson Lawstates that performance increases up to an optimum level of physiological arousal; if arousal continues to increase, performance declines.<br />In order to well in an exam or competition you need to be “keyed up” <br />Positive Effects of Stress<br />
  • 7. Stress that is too intense or prolonged can have<br />harmful psychological and physical effects. <br />Studies have shown that stress can be linked to the<br />following:<br />Depression and suicide<br />Cardio Vascular Disorders (High blood pressure, Strokes, CHD)<br />Gastric ulcers<br />Suppression of immune system – leads to increased infections, cancer<br />Disruption to hormone functioning e.g. can affect growth in children or sexual functioning <br />Negative Effects of Stress<br />
  • 8. Managing Stress Causes of Stress<br />Measuring Stress<br />As stress appears to be a major factor in people’s health psychologists are interested in improving the health of the nation by identifying causes and encouraging stress management techniques. The OCR syllabus covers 3 areas:<br />Stress<br />
  • 9. Psychologists recognise that many areas of our<br />life cause stress. The OCR syllabus focuses on<br />three:<br />Work<br />Hassles and Life events<br />Both of these are examples of tangible<br />stressors<br />Lack of control<br />This is an example of an intangible stressor<br />Causes of Stress<br />
  • 10. Work is an example of an ambient stressor. This<br />means that it is an “ever present” condition that we<br />get used to.<br />Stress at work can have 5 key causes:<br />Relationships at work - we may feel undervalued by bosses/customers or lack support.<br />Work pressures, meeting deadlines<br />Physical environment – noise, heat, overcrowding<br />Stress linked to our role, job security or promotion prospects<br />Lack of control – how much influence we have over the type and amount of work or the flexibility of when and how we do it.<br />Work<br />
  • 11. To measure the psychological and physiological stress response in two categories of employees.<br />Read the study on the handout and highlight the key points<br />Make notes on the key evaluation points of the study<br />H/Wk Make a revision card/revision notes for this study<br />Key Study – Johansson 1978<br />Johansson<br />
  • 12. These are examples of personal stressors.<br />Some psychologists have linked the impact of major life events such as divorce or bereavement to stress.<br />Some psychologists argue that daily hassles and uplifts are more important as a cause of stress.<br />Both of these have clear links to health.<br />Life Events and Daily Hassles<br />
  • 13. To examine the link between life events, illness and accidents.<br />Read the study on the handout and highlight the key points<br />Make notes on the key evaluation points of the study<br />H/Wk <br />2.Read the handout on the study by Kanner et al – Hassles and Uplifts. Which approach do you consider to be the most valid predictor of stress. Why?<br />1.Make a revision card/revision notes for the study you consider to be the most valid.<br />Key Study – Holmes and Rahe 1967<br />Holmes & Rahe<br />
  • 14. Some stress is a response to intangible stressors such as our perceived control over situations.<br />Control is a very important influence in our response to a range of situations.<br />If a person perceives themselves as having control over events they will feel less stressed.<br />Perceived control is concerned with our locus of control.<br /><ul><li>Internal locus of control – attributing events to causes within one’s control
  • 15. External locus of control – attributing events to causes outside one’s control</li></ul>How might locus of control affect the stress<br />response?<br />Lack of Control<br />
  • 16. To see if perceived or actual control can reduce stress<br />reactions.<br />Read the study on the handout and highlight the key points<br />Make notes on the key evaluation points of the study<br />H/Wk Make a revision card/revision notes for this study<br />Key Study – Geer and Maisel 1972<br />Geer & Maisel<br />
  • 17. Plan in class<br />Write up for h/wk<br />Exam Practice Question<br />
  • 18. Psychologists measure stress in 2 main ways:<br />Physiological measure to assess the biological response<br />Self report methods to assess people’s firsthand experience of stress or the factors that cause them stress.<br />On their own each of these is reductionist. A holistic measure would combine different methods of measuring stress<br />Evaluation issues in measuring stress include:<br /><ul><li>Validity – how do we measure someone’s experience of stress?
  • 19. Reliablity – is the measure consistent in measuring the patterns and trends of stress?
  • 20. Ethics – measuring someone’s stress might make them more stressed!</li></ul>Measuring Stress<br />
  • 21. 1. How could you measure the biological stress response?<br />stress hormones in blood or urine<br /> Galvanic Skin Response<br /> Heart rate/ blood pressure<br />2. What type of data would you be collecting?<br />Quantitative data<br />3. What are the advantages/ disadvantages of measuring stress in this way?<br /> Validity, Reliabilty<br />4. Are there other factors that could confound the stress response?<br /> Caffeine can make the heart race<br /> Recreational drugs or alcohol make people sweat and cause pupils to dilate<br /> Nicotine constricts blood vessels<br /> Being wired up to a machine or giving a sample may make you stressed<br />Physiological Measures<br />
  • 22. How did Geer and Maisel measure stress?<br />What is the link between GSR and stress?<br />H/Wk<br />What are the strengths and weaknesses of<br />the physiological method of measuring<br />stress? Support your arguments with<br />examples from the Geer and Maisel study.<br />Look back at the study by Geer andMaisel<br />
  • 23. 1. What are self-report methods?<br />questionnaires, interviews, psychometric tests, diaries<br />2.What type of data would you be collecting?<br />Qualitative data<br />3. What are the advantages/ disadvantages of measuring stress in this way?<br /> Validity, Reliabilty<br />4. Are there other factors that could confound the stress response?<br /> Individual differences, Cultural/ Social factors,<br /> Demand characteristics/social desirability bias.<br />Self Report Methods<br />
  • 24. How was stress measured in either of these studies?<br />What are the advantages/ disadvantages of using self-report methods to measure stress?<br /> Support your arguments with examples from either the Holmes and Rahe or Kanner et al study.<br />Look back at the study by Holmes and Rahe or Kanner et al<br />
  • 25. Reread the handout or your revision notes on the study by Johansson.<br />Describe the physiological measured used.<br />Describe the self-report methods used.<br />Compare the methods used in the study by Johansson with the methods used by Geer and Maisel and Holmes and Rahe/ Kanner et al.<br /> Think about reductionism v holistic approaches; validity; reliabilty; ethics<br />Combined Approach<br />
  • 26. Plan in class – write up for h/wk<br />Exam Practice question<br />
  • 27. “if individuals learn relaxation and other stress management techniques, they can improve their health as well as their odds of living a stress free life “ Selye<br />Stress management techniques include physiological (drugs, biofeedback and psychological approaches (stress inoculation therapy, social support). Each method has strengths and weaknesses.<br />Watch the dvd on Stress Management<br />Stress Management Techniques<br />
  • 28. Indentify the key assumptions of the behavioural, cognitive and social approaches in psychology.<br />Consider how each approach might suggest that stress is caused<br />Now think how each assumption could be used in a stress management technique.<br />Approaches to Stress Management<br />
  • 29. The OCR syllabus focuses on 3 techniques linked<br />to the different approaches:<br />Biofeedback uses the behavioural concept of reinforcement to reduce stress.<br />Stress Inoculation Therapy is a cognitive approach to restructuring the thoughts that contribute to stress.<br />Social support shows how a person’s social networks can reduce stress.<br />Approaches to Stress Management<br />
  • 30. Read the handout on Biofeedback<br />In your own words describe Biofeedback as a stress management technique<br />What are the strengths and limitations of this technique?<br />Behavioural Approach - Biofeedback<br />
  • 31. Read the study on the handout and highlight the key points<br />Make notes on the key evaluation points of the study<br />H/Wk Make a revision card/revision notes for this study<br />Key Study – Budzynski et al 1970<br />Budzinski et al<br />
  • 32. Read the section on Stress Inoculation Therapy (SIT) on p 103 of the textbook.<br />Summarise the technique in your own words.<br />What are the strengths and limitations of the approach?<br />Cognitive Approach-SIT<br />
  • 33. Read the study on the handout and highlight the key points<br />Make notes on the key evaluation points of the study<br />H/Wk Make a revision card/revision notes for this study<br />Key Study - Meichenbaum<br />Meichenbaum<br />
  • 34. Read the handout on Social Support.<br />Summarise the technique in your own words.<br />What are the strengths and limitations of the approach?<br />Social Approach – Social Support<br />
  • 35. Read the study on the handout and highlight the key points<br />Make notes on the key evaluation points of the study<br />H/Wk Make a revision card/revision notes for this study<br />Key Study – Waxler-Morrison et al 1993<br />Waxler-Morrison et al<br />
  • 36. Fill in as many similarities and differences as you can.<br />Compare the techniques.<br />
  • 37. Plan for h/wk<br />Write up under timed conditions.<br />Exam practice question<br />
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