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1. Understand the strange situation Understand the different attachment styles found Evaluate the methodology of the strange situation Ainsworth and Bell (1970) aimed to…
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  • 1. Understand the strange situation Understand the different attachment styles found Evaluate the methodology of the strange situation Ainsworth and Bell (1970) aimed to produce a method for assessing quality of attachment by placing an infant in a situation of mild stress (to encourage the infant to seek comfort) and of novelty (to encourage exploration behaviours). Both comfort seeking and exploration behaviours are indicators of the quality of attachment. My method is devised as a way of measuring the quality of an infant’s attachment. It involves a number of stages designed to gradually increase the level of stress the infant experiences. What ethical issues might arise? Ainsworth used 100 middle class American infants and their mothers. Describe a problem with this sample……………………………… …………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………….. Ainsworth used a controlled observation in a laboratory setting. Give one strength and one weakness of this method. JFI/AQA/Attachments/StrangeSituation 1
  • 2. The situation consists of 8 episodes Put the following into the correct order (give each a number 1-8) Mother and child are introduced to the room The stranger returns and tries to engage with the child A stranger enters the room and talks with the mother. The stranger gradually approaches the child with a toy. Mother returns to greet and comfort the child The child is left on his own. Mother and child are left alone and the child can investigate the toys Mother returns, greets and picks up the child. The stranger leaves inconspicuously. Mother leaves the child alone with the stranger, and the stranger interacts with the child. Separation anxiety – stress is caused by being separated from a caregiver Stranger anxiety – stress is caused by the presence of a stranger Reunion behaviour – the way the caregiver was greeted on return JFI/AQA/Attachments/StrangeSituation 2
  • 3. Write reunion, separation or stranger under the stages you think are meant to assess them. Findings Explain the following three attachment types in words. Each description should have 6 sentences. Attachment styles displayed by infants in the strange situation Secure (B) Avoidant Resistant Insecure (A) Insecure (C) Willingness to high high low explore Stranger anxiety High low high Separation anxiety Some easy to Indifferent Distressed sooth Behaviour on Enthusiastic Avoids contact Seeks and rejects reunion Caregiver’s Sensitive May ignore infant Ambivalent behaviour Percentage 66 22 12 The secure attachment style refers to those who….. The avoidant attachment style is characterised by….. The resistant style of attachment is characterised by….. JFI/AQA/Attachments/StrangeSituation 3
  • 4. Conclusion - summarise the conclusion in less than 25 words PSYA1 Developmental Psychology – exam practice 1 This is an observation record of an infant’s behaviour at a mother and toddler group. Baby G is male, 16 months old. Mother enters carrying G, sits down in low seat with child on her lap. Hands child rattle. G grasps it, shakes it. Looks at mother (eye contact), throws it on the floor. Mother puts child on floor. G crawls to rattle, picks it up. Returns to mother. Crawls off again, starts to play with toy car. Moves further away. Plays with ball and bricks. Mother gets up and goes to other side of room to talk. G looks round at seat. Looks round (mother out of sight). Crawls to seat fast. Stands up by seat. Starts to cry, looks round, cries louder, sits down next to chair, miserable look. Mother returns, G reaches out to her. Mother cuddles G. G stops crying and cuddles. Crawls a little way off then returns fast with toy. Plays, giving mother toy. Crawls further away and resumes play with bricks. 1 (a) Identify the type of attachment displayed by G. Justify your answer by citing evidence from the observation record above. (4 marks) 1 (b) (i) Explain one ethical problem associated with an observational study of infants such as this. (3 marks) 1 (b) (ii) Explain one practical problem associated with an observational study of infants such as this. (3 marks) JFI/AQA/Attachments/StrangeSituation 4
  • 5. Ainsworth – exam question answer 1 mark for identifying the type of attachment depicted – securely attached or Type B. Any two of the following pieces of evidence • Exploration using mother as safe base: “Looks at mother (eye contact), throws it on the floor. Mother puts child on floor. G crawls to rattle, picks it up. Returns to mother. Crawls off again, starts to play with toy car. Moves further away. Plays with ball and bricks.” • Child exhibits distress at mother’s absence - ‘leaving’: “Mother gets up and goes to other side of room to talk. G looks round at seat. Looks round (mother out of sight). Crawls to seat fast. Stands up by seat. Starts to cry, looks round, cries louder, sits down next to chair, miserable look.” • On her return, the mother is able to placate the child fairly easily and G shows pleasure at her return: “Mother returns, G reaches out to her. Mother cuddles G. G ceases crying, cuddles. Crawls a little way off then returns fast with toy. Plays, giving mother toy. Crawls further away and resumes play with bricks.” JFI/AQA/Attachments/StrangeSituation 5
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    Jul 23, 2017
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