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1. Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) multi-store model of memory. Multi-store model: ã Two distinct stores – short-term and long-term. ã Stimuli from environment…
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  • 1. Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) multi-store model of memory. Multi-store model: • Two distinct stores – short-term and long-term. • Stimuli from environment is held for less than one second – sensory register. • Sensory Register: o Modality-specific – information is stored in the same way in which it is registered – taste as a taste, etc. o Capacity is large but only a brief duration – about half a second. o Processing is mostly unconscious and has to be deduced from experiments. o Sperling (1960) indicated it holds at least 9 items but only for a brief period of time. • Short-term Memory: o Sensory register can be lost or is passed on to STM. o (1956) Miller published “Magical Number Seven” – showed limit of STM to be between five and nine, on average 7. o Can be extended through “chunking”. o If information in STM is rehearsed it can be retained in STM storage and transferred to LTM for potentially indefinite storage. • Long-term Memory: o Refers to anything that we can remember for a period of time lasting from minutes to a life-time. o Has a huge capacity and seems to be able to store memories in a number of forms. o Mostly abstract/semantic and there is evidence it is stored in an organised and meaningful way. • Evaluation (Research): o Duration of STM was investigated by Peterson and Peterson (1959) – gave participants trigrams (e.g. MXT) which they had to recall after 0-18 seconds. o Only 10% were recalled after 18s therefore showing duration of STM is about 18 seconds. o Can be extended through rehearsal and it is as a result of rehearsal that information is transferred to LTM.
  • 2. o Proved functional separation of STM and LTM o We rarely rehearse in everyday life yet we still remember a lot of things. This can be better explained through levels of processing theory. o Over-simplistic view that STM and LTM structures operate in a single, uniform fashion. Working model is a more active model of human processing. o Many studies use laboratory experiments and can be criticised in terms of ecological validity and demand characteristics. May tell us little about how memory works in real life. Levels of Processing Theory of Mind – Craik and Lockhart (1972) • Proposed process rather than structure was important and that words can be processed at a number of different levels: o Shallow/structural level – a visual level, e.g. physical properties of stimulus. o Intermediate/phonetic level – an auditory level, e.g. the sound of the stimulus. o Deep/semantic level – the meaning of the stimulus and connections to other stimuli. • What is done with the material during rehearsal determines if it is remembered, not simply the repetition of the words. • Any stimulus can be processed in a number of ways from low levels of analysis to higher levels. • The higher levels give more durable memories; rehearsal just prolongs the memory trace without on its own leading to a permanent memory. • Used test that we did in class. Thought it preferable for participants not to know beforehand or they would be tempted to perform additional analyses on the words. • Argued Atkinson and Shiffrin’s model gave a simplified view of rehearsal. • When material is encoded, there are 2 types of rehearsal that can take place; it is the type of rehearsal that is important for long-term retention: o Maintenance rehearsal – simple rote repetition, repeating the words as they have been presented. o Elaborative rehearsal – analysing the meaning of the rehearsed material, perhaps linking it with stored knowledge in LTM. • Assumption is that the depth of processing determines the persistence of a memory trace in the long-term store, and elaborative rehearsal will entail deeper processing and thus a more durable memory. • Evaluation (Research): o Experiment we did but by Craik and Tulving – significantly more words recognised at deep level (65%) than phonetic (37%) or shallow (17%). Relies on incidental learning – advantage of being more true- to-life. Necessary level of deception raises ethical issues. o Argued perception, attention and memory are interdependent because memory traces are formed as a result of perceptual and attentional processes – major contribution to understanding of memory. o Open to empirical testing and generally results proved predictions, worked on incidental learning, which is more ecologically valid.
  • 3. o Problem – difficulty determining what level of processing actually occurs in a particular case. o Craik (2002) accepted that original levels were over-simplified and has accepted new findings – Morris et al found recall depends on relevance of the processing to the memory test and that somatic processing is not always superior to phonetic processing. The Working Memory Model – Baddeley and Hitch (1974) • Multi-store model proposed single and passive short-term store, whereas working model emphasises the active nature of STM which has more than one component. • Three components, allowing for temporary storage of verbal and visuo-spatial material. • The phonological loop is concerned with auditory and speech based information. • Visuo-spatial sketchpad allows storage of visuo-spatial material – visual and spatial information, known as the inner eye. • Coordination over stores is an attentional control system known as central executive. • Central Executive: o Performs a number of tasks including:  Focus and switch attention,  Co-ordinate the sub-systems – phonological loop and VSS,  Connect working memory with long-term memory. o Not unlike a business executive. o Flexible system which can process information in any sensory modality in a variety of ways. o Store information for a brief period of time. • Visuo-spatial Scratchpad: o Divided into two components:  A visual component – deals with objects and features like shape and colour,  A spatial component – deals with locations and movements in space, e.g. planning your way through a shopping centre. • The Phonological Loop: o Two components:  A phonological store – holds auditory memory traces for a few seconds before they fade.  An articulatory rehearsal process, which is essentially sub- vocal speech – limited capacity of about 3-4 items.
  • 4. o Auditory information enters automatically into the phonological store. o Visually presented language – text – can be transformed into phonological code by silent articulation and placed in the phonological store. o “Inner ear” – it remembers vocal sounds in their temporal order. o “Inner voice” – repeats words in order to prevent them from fading away after about 2 seconds. o Research and evidence comes from three areas: o Similarity of sound: similar sounding letters – VPBG – recalled less well than dissimilar letters – XAYW. Suggests code is phonological. o Word-length effect: short words remembered better than long words. They can be articulated faster than longer words, so more of them can be articulated in the time before the trace disappears. o The effect of articulatory suppression: if asked to say something aloud while rehearsing material in phonological loop, the memory for the rehearsed material is impaired. • The three part structure was recently (2000) given a fourth component by Baddeley – episodic buffer. It’s considered necessary because problems emerged with the original model: o Had difficulty explaining the interaction between the working memory and long-term memory. o No mechanism for allowing the sub-systems to interact. • Episodic Buffer: o Limited capacity store that binds together information from a number of fields – verbal, visual, spatial and chronological information. o It can use access to the different sub-systems and form conscious awareness. • Evaluation (Research): o Evidence for a general attentional processor in addition to the sub- components in the model, is provided by dual task experiments:  If the two tasks are using the same sub-system, performance is poorer when performed at the same time than when performed separately. If they require different sub-systems they are usually preformed equally well together as separate.  Articulatory suppression – saying something aloud makes use of articulatory loop thereby making it difficult to perform a simultaneous task using the same sub-system due to its limited capacity. o Increasing amount of evidence to support relationship between phonological loop and acquisition of language. Clinical study – patient with phonological loop deficit, but normal verbal LTM. Baddeley found a failure to acquire vocabulary of a new language. Also PL is proving to be a good predictor of the ability of children to learn a second language. o Key findings from studies indentifying brain regions associated with use of PL provided evidence for functional separation of phonological and articulatory processes. Phonological – Wernicke’s area. Articulatory – Broca’s area. Verbal memories appear to be in left hemisphere – spatial memories is in the right hemisphere of the brain.
  • 5. o Central executive is said to have limited capacity but there is no evidence as to what the capacity is. o Information from laboratory studies with high level of experimental control – artificial environment gives theoretical models but may not generalise to complex real-life situations. o Still being researched and modified – provides valuable insight into the complexity of STM processes. Key Points: • The multi-store model of memory consists of sensory register, STM and LTM. • Each component of the multi-store model has different properties – code, capacity duration. • According to multi-store model, the key process for transferring information from STM to LTM is rehearsal. • Levels of processing theory emphasises that depth of processing is the key to long-term retention. • The working model is a model of short-term memory only. • The working model has a central executive and a number of sub-systems, including the visuo-spatial scratchpad and phonological loop; more recently episodic buffer was added.
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    Jul 23, 2017
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