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1. KEY APPROACHES<br />Biological<br /><ul><li>Stresses the importance of nature. 2. We are able to manipulate genetic make-up to investigate…
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  • 1. KEY APPROACHES<br />Biological<br /><ul><li>Stresses the importance of nature.
  • 2. We are able to manipulate genetic make-up to investigate genetics of behaviour.
  • 3. Darwin’s theory of evolution shows that strong genes survive & maladaptive genes die out.
  • 4. Observable in many non-human species – sexual selection.
  • 5. Observable in humans – rooting reflex.
  • 6. Uses scientific, experimental procedures in its investigations.
  • 7. Has many useful applications – drugs that alleviate disorders like bipolar depression.
  • 8. It is reductionist – explains thoughts and behaviour in terms of nerves and chemicals.
  • 9. Over-simplistic – fails to appreciate the influence of environmental factors on behaviour.
  • 10. Raises ethical issues – is it right to artificially manipulate our genetic make-up?</li></ul>Behaviourist<br /><ul><li>Pavlov (dog), Skinner (rats), Thorndike (law of effect+cats), Watson and Rayner (little Albert).
  • 11. Psychology should focus of behaviour, not minds.
  • 12. All behaviour is learnt through interactions and experiences.
  • 13. Operant Conditioning – use of consequences or reinforcements to modify/shape behaviour.
  • 14. Classical Conditioning – new association can be made with stimulus & existing response.
  • 15. Positive Reinforcement – something pleasurable, increases likelihood of response.
  • 16. Negative Reinforcement – removing anything unpleasant, increases probability of response.
  • 17. Positive Punisher – anything unpleasant, decreases probability of preceding event.
  • 18. Negative Punisher – removal of something pleasant, decreases likelihood of response.
  • 19. Many practical applications – modification of speech in autistic children.
  • 20. Use of rigorous, experimental methods of research increases credibility.
  • 21. Provided practical applications for shaping behaviour – rewards in education.
  • 22. Ignores mental processes involved in learning, unlike cognitive approach.
  • 23. Rejects possible role of biological factors, nature, in human behaviour.
  • 24. Principles of operant and classical conditioning do not explain spontaneous behaviour.
  • 25. Use of animals is criticised – surely humans are more complex than animals?</li></ul>Cognitive Approach<br /><ul><li>Focuses on the internal mental processes that lie between stimulus and response.
  • 26. Compares humans to computers in that they: encode, store and retrieve information.
  • 27. Information processing model: Encoding of information from the environment transformation of information using mental processes Output of behavioural response.
  • 28. Focuses on internal mental processes unlike behaviourism.
  • 29. Uses scientific, experimental methods, unlike humanistic.
  • 30. Models like information-processing approach have been used to explain mental processes.
  • 31. Been criticised as over-simplistic – ignoring the complexities of the mind.
  • 32. Humans are viewed as a machine – which is seen as crude.
  • 33. Many theories are based on artificial lab tasks – unrepresentative of everyday behaviours.</li></ul>Social Learning Theory<br /><ul><li>Bandura Bobo Dolls experiment
  • 34. We learn by observing others (role models) in our environment.
  • 35. Four conditions necessary for effective modelling to occur:
  • 36. Attention – noticing something in the environment.
  • 37. Retention – remembering what has been observed.
  • 38. Motor Reproduction – replicating behaviour of the model.
  • 39. Motivation – seeking to demonstrate behaviour observed.
  • 40. Applied to many areas of psychology such as gender development.
  • 41. Learning through vicarious reinforcement – not our own experiences but that of others.
  • 42. Takes into account the cognitive processes involved in learning.
  • 43. Uses both experimental and non-experimental methods of research – Bandura.
  • 44. Provided effective explanations of behaviour – gender roles.
  • 45. Does not fully explain individual differences – reinforcement for one may not be for another.
  • 46. Does not account for all behaviours – if we observe by others, explain criminals?</li></ul>Humanistic Approach<br /><ul><li>Maslow – Hierarchy of needs, Carl Rogers – person centred therapy.
  • 47. Five core features:
  • 48. Human beings must be viewed as a whole and not be reduced to component parts.
  • 49. Humans are unique and must be valued as such.
  • 50. Human consciousness includes awareness of oneself in the context of other people.
  • 51. Humans have free will – the ability to choose and determine their own paths in life.
  • 52. Humans are intentional – they seek meaning, value and creativity.
  • 53. Humans as active agents, have free will to control and determine their own development.
  • 54. Rogers stated to be psychologically healthy, a person’s ideal &real self must be congruent:
  • 55. Self-concept – the way in which a person sees him/herself.
  • 56. Ideal self – the person whom we would like to be.
  • 57. Real self – the person we actually are.
  • 58. Maslow stated all individuals strive towards self-actualisation:
  • 59. Physiological – sex, food, sleep.
  • 60. Safety – our home environment.
  • 61. Love/Belonging – affection, being part of different groups.
  • 62. Esteem – self-esteem and respect from others.
  • 63. Self-Actualisation – achieving individual potential.
  • 64. Humanistic psychologists view the person as an active agent, unlike behaviourism.
  • 65. Humanistic psychologists promote idea of personal responsibility.
  • 66. The subjective experience of a person is of value and importance.
  • 67. Person-centred therapy is used by psychologists and counsellors in therapy today.
  • 68. Humanistic theories are hard to falsify – lack predictive power and are therefore unscientific.
  • 69. In rejecting use of scientific method, humanistic theories lack empirical support.
  • 70. Over-emphases the person’s ability to change and develop – ignore cultural constraints.
  • 71. Individual emotions and consciousness are difficult to study objectively.</li></ul>Psychodynamic Approach<br /><ul><li>Freud – Rat Man, Iceberg Analogy, Psychosexual stages of development, defence mechanisms.
  • 72. Unconscious mind contains instinctive drives, needs and psychic actions we are unaware of.
  • 73. The way we progress through 5 psychosexual stages as a child, determines adult behaviour:
  • 74. Oral – 0-18months; pleasure centred around the mouth, mothers breast = object of desire since feeding reduces the infant’s negative experience of hunger.
  • 75. Anal – 18-36months; child gains pleasure from retention and expulsion of faeces. During toilet training child can either please parents by using the toilet, or defy parents by withholding faeces.
  • 76. Phallic – 3-6years; sexual instinct focussed on the genital area. Boys – Oedipus complex, girls - Electra complex. Resolution of complexes forms gender identity.
  • 77. Latent – 6-pubery; sexual drive present, albeit dormant. Feud stated sexual energy is focused (or sublimated) towards peer friendships, school.
  • 78. Genital – puberty+; sexual interests mature and are directed to gaining heterosexual pleasure through intercourse.
  • 79. Our personality is structured by the interactions of the id, ego and superego:
  • 80. Id – selfish needs, pleasure principle, instant gratitude; food.
  • 81. Ego – reality.
  • 82. Superego – morality principle, striving to be perfect.
  • 83. The ego employs defence mechanisms to protect us from feelings of guilt and anxiety:
  • 84. Denial – reducing anxiety by refusing to see the unpleasant aspects of reality – telling yourself grades don’t matter.
  • 85. Displacement – mind redirects emotions from a dangerous object to a safe object – punching a wall instead of a person.
  • 86. Rationalisation – making logical justification for decisions derived from a different mental process – to avoid facing alcoholism, saying ‘drink has health benefits’.
  • 87. Sublimation – refocusing or channelling of impulses to socially accepted behaviours – joining the army to cover for aggression/violent behaviours.
  • 88. Acknowledges the importance of childhood experiences to determine adult personality.
  • 89. The theories offer casual explanations for underlying atypical psychological conditions.
  • 90. Freud’s methods of psychoanalysis are still used in psychiatry today.
  • 91. Freud’s theories are considered to be unfalsifiable and therefore unscientific.
  • 92. Freud’s use of the case study method lacks generalisability.
  • 93. Freud’s controversial idea that infants display sexual urges has received enormous criticism.
  • 94. Effectiveness of psychoanalysis as a therapy is questioned in comparison to patients who recover spontaneously from atypical disorders.
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