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1. The Humanistic Approach- Understanding the whole person.<br />Maslow (1968) called the Humanistic approach, the ‘third force’, behaviourism and the…
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  • 1. The Humanistic Approach- Understanding the whole person.<br />Maslow (1968) called the Humanistic approach, the ‘third force’, behaviourism and the Psychodynamic approach being the other two. Cohen (1958) a British Psychologist originally coined the term, but it really took off in America during the 1950s. <br />Experience, uniqueness, freedom, meaning, and choice.<br />33655329565<br />Carl Rogers (1902-1987) agreed with most of what Maslow believed, but added that for a person to " grow" , they need an environment that provides them with genuinness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listenened to and understood).<br />Key assumptions<br />People have free will, they can make choices. They act as interpretors of their own world. They are the experts and it is their own subjective experience that matters. This phenomenological approach contrasts sharply with the positivist approach (unbiased, objective, and value free). Humanistic psychologists try to understand behaviour from the ‘actor’ themselves rather than relying on observations.<br />336550Maslow and Rogers stressed the ‘healthy half ‘of psychology, whilst according to Maslow, Freud represented the ‘sick half’. Individuals naturally move towards developing healthy personalities, unless external factors block this).<br />40132000Abraham H. Maslow (1908-1970) Psychology Of being.<br />Maslow didn’t reject the Psychodynamic and Behaviourist approach, he brought the objective and subjective together. His hierarchy of needs can be seen as an extension of the psychodynamic approach. For instance, the physiological needs would represent the id. Horney, focused on the safety and love. Adler, focused on the esteem needs. <br />Maslow’s theory is relevant to personality and motivation. It has been applied to Education, the workplace, management training, personal development and therapy.<br />Maslow stated <br />We share the need for food with all living things, the need for love with (perhaps) the higher apes, (and) the need for self actualisation with (no other species).<br />2743200159385<br />People ensure survival by satisfying basic needs<br />Self-actualisation is a different motive.<br />These two sets of motivational states set us<br />Apart from animals. D-motives are a<br />Means to an end. Whereas, self-<br />Actualisation is intrinsically satisfying.<br />Physiological, safety, love and belonging, and esteem needs are known as the deficiency-motives. If you do not acquire them, then you are deficient. If you have them, then you cease to be motivated by them. <br />Can you think of some examples to illustrate this point?<br />Homeostasis is important. If the body is hungry, it will focus on this need to restore itself. Maslow applied this to safety, love & belonging, and esteem needs. These are crucial and as instinctive to our needs as the most basic. When times are hard, people can regress to a lower level and become fixated on certain needs depending on their own experiences.<br />“Philosophy of the future” -- what would your ideal life or world be like? Make a list of things that would describe this ideal.<br />This information can give significant information as to what needs you do or do not have covered.<br />Key points<br /><ul><li>Each need must be satisfied before we can move onto the next need.
  • 2. Children develop through the lower level needs first before moving onto the higher level needs as they grow and mature into adults (ontogeny).
  • 3. Higher level needs are new to the evolutionary process (phylogenesis).
  • 4. The higher needs become linked to life experience and become less linked to biology.
  • 5. Every individual is unique (idiographic approach).</li></ul>‘There is no beast in man, there is only man in man’<br />Rogers.<br />The self<br />We attempt to maintain consistency between our self-image and our actual behaviour. This isn’t always achieved. How we see ourselves may not be how others see us. This incongruence can be threatening so we block, deny or distort it from our conscious awareness. <br />These defence mechanisms prevent the self from growing and changing. The gap between the self-image and reality widens. This can lead to confusion, vulnerability, dissatisfaction and eventually maladaptive behaviours.<br />Does your self-image match what you really think and do? If so, then you are in a good position to self-actualise.<br />Rigid and inflexible self-images<br />I am so irresistible and fantastic at everything I do. If people can’t recognise that, then they are crazy or blind. <br />What type of defence mechanism is this an example of?<br />I am such a dull, boring person, noone in their right mind would be interested in me. If they are, then they are doing it out of pity because I am such a sad loser!<br />Conditional positive regard.<br />I will love you if you act this way and accept you if you achieve this for me!<br />Alanis Morrisettes song Perfect sums this up!<br /><br />This can lead to distorted and dishonest ways of acting and feeling. We internalise conditions of worth and distort or deny those that don’t. “If I behave in this way, they will accept and love me”. A distinction between the self (the recognised, accepted and acknowledged part of our experience) and the organism (the whole of our possible experience, everything we do, feel and think) occurs. <br />Positive self-regard<br />Do you live by your own standards or by someone else’s? Do you think of yourself as good, lovable and worthy?<br />Does your behaviour and experience match your conditions of worth? By denying your true thoughts and feelings, incongruence will occur. <br />I am beautiful, no matter what they say,<br />Words can’t bring me down, so don’t you bring me down today!<br />Client-centered therapy (CCT) (1950s)<br />Unconditional positive regard- The self that he really is.<br />Rogers wanted to create an atmosphere in which the individual is at the centre of the therapy. This includes total acceptance and non-judgemental support, regardless of what the client says or does. By creating this, the client will come to accept their own distortions and denials and own up to them. This enables the client to move towards a healthier personality by valuing themselves and not relying on others to provide love and acceptance in a conditional way. They no longer need to depend on conditions of worth.<br />Now known as Person-centered therapy (PCT) (1970s)<br />Rogers saw many parallels between therapists and teachers. They are both facilitators of an atmosphere of freedom and support for individual pursuits. (Nye 2000)<br />Q-sorts; ‘I am a domineering person’.<br />33655-3810Rogers wanted an objective measurement of the self-concept, ideal self and their relationship over the course of the therapy. He designed the Q-sort. The client is asked to arrange the Q-sort cards (which contain statements on each) into an order ranging from ‘very characteristic of me’ to ‘not at all characteristic of me’. This is done to measure the self-image and then again for the ideal self. The two Q-sorts are then correlated to determine the discrepancy between self-image and ideal-self. This is repeated at various points throughout the therapy.<br /> A Q-sort link.<br />Non-directive therapy, how non-reflective should one be?<br />Reflection<br />S: " I'm very depressed today, Doctor." <br />D: " You're very depressed, Mr. Smith." <br />S: " Yes. I haven't been this depressed in a long time." <br />D: " You haven't been this depressed in a long time." <br />S: " I'm so depressed that I'm thinking about killing myself." <br />D: " You're thinking about killing yourself." <br />S: " I'd like to kill myself right now." <br />D: " You'd like to kill yourself right now." <br />S: " Yes, I'm so desperate that I think I'll open this window and jump out." <br />D: " You're thinking of jumping out that window." <br />S: " I'm gonna do it. See? I'm opening the window.... and I'm gonna jump." <br />D: " You're going to jump out the window." <br />S: " Bye, doc. Here I go........ aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaah" (splat)<br />D: " Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaah, splat." <br />                        Reproduced courtesy of psychologist John Suler, Rider Univ.<br />Becoming more autonomous, spontaneous and confident. If change occurs then it is the client who makes it happen! <br />Rogers rejected all diagnostic labelling. Individuals are too unique and complex.<br />The three therapist attitudes.<br /><ul><li>Genuineness (authenticity or congruence) A real person.
  • 6. Unconditional positive regard: Must deeply and genuinely care for the client.
  • 7. Empathic understanding: Must clarify the emotional significance of the clients response, not just the verbal.</li></ul>Roger’s daughter Natalie has pioneered person-centered expressive therapy (Rogers 1993) which incorporates movement, art, music, pottery, and creative writing, as well as essentially non-verbal channels of expression,<br /><br />Check out her site!<br />Applying the Humanistic approach to Education<br />True freedom and self-fulfillment. <br />Experiential learning, involves the learner discovering and experiencing things for themselves. It is about the learning process for the individual. This type of learning requires no teacher. <br />336550<br />As stated by the ancient Chinese philosopher, Confucius, " [t]ell me and I will forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand." <br />Aristotle once said, " For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them.<br />Certain abilities are required:<br />1. the learner must be willing to be actively involved in the experience;<br />2. the learner must be able to reflect on the experience;<br />3. the learner must possess and use analytical skills to conceptualize the experience; and<br /> 4. the learner must possess decision making and problem solving skills in order to use the new ideas gained from the experience.<br />Not all experiences lead to learning.<br />Analysis, initiative and immersion<br />Concrete learning<br />Ideas for teaching; Activities<br />Q-sort; students to put statements into an order for self-concept (student) and ideal-self (student). Measure congruence.<br />Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; meeting the basic needs of the learners, environment, aesthetics, safety, belonging, self-esteem.<br />Teacher as helper, counsellor and guide, encouraging intrinsic learning. Avoiding extrinsic learning. This type of learning will reflect the needs of the individual and not the goals of the teacher.<br />This leads to growth and actualization.<br />
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