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1. Continuing Professional Development GCE Psychology Specification A Psychology in Action: Addictive Behaviour Delegate Booklet Version 1.0 2. Permission to reproduce…
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  • 1. Continuing Professional Development GCE Psychology Specification A Psychology in Action: Addictive Behaviour Delegate Booklet Version 1.0
  • 2. Permission to reproduce all copyright materials have been applied for. In some cases, efforts to contact copyright holders have been unsuccessful and AQA will be happy to rectify any omissions of acknowledgements in future documents if required. Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (company number 3644723) and a registered charity (registered charity number 1073334). Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX. Dr Michael Cresswell, Director General.
  • 3. Content Page Session 2: Understanding models of addiction 1 Case Study 1 1 Case Study 2 2 Case Study 3 3 Research Methods activity 4 Attributions and Addiction 5 Experimental Study 6
  • 4. Teaching Psychology of Addiction Session 2: Understanding models of addiction Case Study 1 Pete is 28 years old. He works as a teacher in a large, inner-city school. Pete first started smoking when he was at school and many of his fellow students also smoked. Pete’s father and his brother also smoked, although his father recently gave up following a health scare. Pete finds aspects of his job extremely stressful and feels that smoking helps him to relax. He has tried to give up, but experienced withdrawal symptoms and strong nicotine cravings. When he managed to give up for two months he rapidly put weight on and worries that this will happen again. He has gradually increased his intake from ten to more than twenty cigarettes a day and, on nights out when he is drinking, can smoke more than thirty. Pete has been referred to a smoking cessation clinic by his GP. Analyse this case study with reference to the biological perspective. You might like to consider the following issues: • What features of this case study suggest that Pete is dependent on nicotine? • What physiological symptoms of dependency does Pete show? • How might researchers look for a genetic link in smoking? • What other factors may also influence Pete’s smoking? • What biological interventions might be useful for Pete? 1
  • 5. Teaching Psychology of Addiction Session 2: Understanding models of addiction Case Study 2 17 year old Clare is a regular player of lottery scratch cards. She started doing these when she was a young teenager. Clare’s mum used to collect scratch cards on the way home from work each day and let Clare and her older sister do them. Clare has won several times this year with sums up to £50.00. She often buys three cards on the way to school and another couple on the way home. Clare finds playing extremely exciting and she often day-dreams at school about what she would do with a big win. She has a part-time job and most of her money goes on cards. Occasionally, Clare has taken money from her older sister’s purse to buy cards. When confronted about this, she lied and said the money was for buying clothes and make up. Analyse this case study with reference to the learning (behavioural) perspective. You might like to consider the following issues: • What features of this case study suggest that Clare’s gambling is pathological? • How could this behaviour be explained by reference to classical conditioning, operant conditioning or social learning? • How might researchers investigate the importance of role models in dependency and gambling? • How might reinforcement play a role in maintaining this type of gambling habit? 2
  • 6. Teaching Psychology of Addiction Session 2: Understanding models of addiction Case Study 3 Rachel has always been a sun-worshipper. From a young age, she would lie in the sun, baking herself on holiday. She first started using sun-beds when she was 15. If Rachel had dinner money left, she and her friends would call in at the tanning shop after school, a couple of times a week. She has recently upped her sessions to four times a week which costs just over £30.00. Rachel’s family continually tell her how dangerous it is. Last year, she tried using fake tan instead. But it made her look orange and blotchy, so she went back to the beds and booths. Rachel loves how she looks when she has a tan and feels naked and plain without. She thinks that being brown hides your sins and has a slimming effect. Rachel doesn’t worry about skin cancer, even though her mum recently had a malignant tumour removed from her arm. She is always careful to use sun-cream on holiday and thinks the sun is more dangerous than sun-beds. Adapted from First magazine (19.05 2007) Analyse this case study with reference to the cognitive perspective. You might like to consider the following issues: • What is it about Rachel’s case that makes it relevant for addiction? • What symptoms of dependency does Rachel show? • What kind of cognitions/ thoughts does Rachel have about tanning? How might these influence her actions? • What other factors may also influence Rachel’s behaviour? • What kind of interventions might be useful based on the cognitive perspective? 3
  • 7. Teaching Psychology of Addiction Research Methods activity A group of researchers looked for evidence of a correlation between the amount of self esteem in young people and their tendency to develop dependencies. In the first part of this study, they asked a sample of 65 young people aged 16 to 18 to complete a self report questionnaire which measured levels of Self Esteem. They then asked their sample to complete a second questionnaire relating to smoking and drinking habits. This questionnaire produced an ‘Index of dependency potential’ scored from zero (no tendency) to 12 (very high). The research team found a significant positive correlation (r= .437 p ≤0.05) between self esteem levels and dependency potential 1. What was the aim of this research study? 2. Identify the research method used in this study. 3. Identify the two variables measured here. Explain how each of these was operationalised. 4. Name one graphical method which could be used to display this data. 5. Explain what is meant the sentence ‘The research team found a significant positive correlation (r= .437 p ≤0.05) between self esteem levels and dependency potential 6. Name ONE statistical test which could have been used to analyse these results and explain why this test would be appropriate. 7. Identify one methodological problem with this study 8. Identify one ethical issue with this study 4
  • 8. Teaching Psychology of Addiction Attributions and Addiction Read the short interview transcripts below. Each refers to an individual’s account of their own or a family members struggle with alcohol or drugs. For each quote, consider whether the speaker makes an internal attribution for the substance use (for example, ‘she has always been a needy person’) an external attribution ( for example, ‘I was under a large amount of stress at work’) or no attribution at all. How could you analyse this data using inferential statistics? ‘There were circumstances where, when I look back on it, I used alcohol as a crutch, My marriage wasn’t going well and I was pretty lonely most evenings: a couple of drinks really helped.’ ‘She started drinking when her work was very stressful: Sue has never coped well with pressure since she was at University and she tends to bury her problems rather than facing them.’ ‘Towards the last two years, I drank far too much, I've no bones about that for whatever reason. You can't make excuses and I don't try to, but I got into a situation where I was drinking too much and my liver could not recover.' ‘After the car accident, I used alcohol to help me sleep. It helped to prevent the image of the accident when I closed my eyes- but I still dreamt about it.’ ‘I’ve always had a couple of drinks before I went out at the weekend. I’m quite a shy person inside but after two glasses of wine I’m much more confident. It just got a bit out of hand.’ ‘My mum was an alcoholic and I grew up with the view that drinking every day was acceptable.’ 5
  • 9. Teaching Psychology of Addiction Experimental Study Devise an experimental study to look at the impact of a health education programme or film aimed at dissuading young people aged 12 – 13 from starting to smoke. Think about the following factors: • Your choice of Experimental design • The use of a control group • Allocation to conditions • Control of confounding variables • Ethical issues • Length of follow up 6
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